Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Estimate of total salt intake in two regions of Belgium through analysis of sodium in 24-h urine samples

Abstract

Objectives:

To evaluate total salt intake in the adult population through an analysis of sodium in 24-h urine samples in two regions of Belgium.

Methods:

Urine samples were collected over 24 h from participants and they had to complete a specific questionnaire about salt intake afterwards. Sodium and creatinine concentrations were analysed in these samples.

Subjects:

The target population comprised adults aged 45–65 years in the region of Ghent and Liege. A total of 123 and 157 volunteers from Ghent and Liege, respectively, were included in the study.

Results:

The mean creatinine level in Flanders (n=114) amounted to 0.173±0.035 mmol/kg/day, whereas in the Walloon region (n=135) it amounted to 0.161±0.036 mmol/kg/day, after the exclusion of subjects with incomplete urine collection. Intake of sodium in Flanders (n=114) was 4.29±1.29 g/day, whereas in the Walloon region (n=135) it was 3.94±1.44 g/day. In both regions, sodium intake in men was higher than in women.

Conclusion:

Salt intake was more or less twice as high as the recommended intake. Salt intake as estimated from 24-h urine collections is substantially higher than that previously calculated on the basis of food consumption data. A salt reduction programme for Belgium is primordial.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

References

  • Synchron LX system(s) (2004a). Chemistry Information Sheet CREm Creatinine. 389902 AB.

  • Synchron LX System(s) (2004b). Chemistry Information Sheet NA Sodium. 389936 AB.

  • Bayingana K, Demarest S, Gisle L, Hesse E, Miermans PJ, Tafforeau J et al. (2006). Gezondheidsenquête door middel van Interview, België, 2004. Afdeling Epidemiologie, WIV: Brussel.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bingham SA, Cummings JH (1985). The use of creatinine output as a check on the completeness of 24-h urine collections. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 39, 343–353.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bingham SA, Cummings JH (1986). Creatinine and PABA as markers for completeness of collection of 24-h urine samples. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40, 473–476.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cappuccio FP, Kalaitzidis R, Duneclift S, Eastwood JB (2000). Unravelling the links between calcium excretion, salt intake, hypertension, kidney stones and bone metabolism. J Nephrol 13, 169–177.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cappuccio FP, MacGregor GA (1997). Dietary salt restriction: benefits for cardiovascular disease and beyond. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 6, 477–482.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • gezondheidsraad (2000). Keukenzout en bloeddruk. Den Haag: 2000/13.

  • He J, Ogden LG, Vupputuri S, Bazzano LA, Loria C, Whelton PK (1999). Dietary sodium intake and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults. JAMA 282, 2027–2034.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Leiba A, Vald A, Peleg E, Shamiss A, Grossman E (2005). Does dietary recall adequately assess sodium, potassium, and calcium intake in hypertensive patients? Nutrition 21, 462–466.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mattes RD, Donnelly D (1991). Relative contributions of dietary sodium sources. J Am Coll Nutr 10, 383–393.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nagata C, Takatsuka N, Shimizu N, Shimizu H (2004). Sodium intake and risk of death from stroke in Japanese men and women. Stroke 35, 1543–1547.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olafsdottir AS, Thorsdottir I, Gunnarsdottir I, Thorgeirsdottir H, Steingrimsdottir L (2006). Comparison of women's diet assessed by FFQs and 24-h recalls with and without underreporters: associations with biomarkers. Ann Nutr Metab 50, 450–460.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reinivuo H, Valsta LM, Laatikainen T, Tuomilehto J, Pietinen P (2006). Sodium in the Finnish diet: II trends in dietary sodium intake and comparison between intake and 24-h excretion of sodium. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 1160–1167.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stein JH (1998). Internal medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences: St Louis, Maryland Heights, MO, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strazzullo P, D’Elia L, Kandala NB, Cappuccio FP (2009). Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 339, b4567.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vandevijvere S, Van Oyen H (2008). Sodium intake in the Belgian population. Research limitations and policy implications. Arch Public Health 66, 187–195.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang XQ, Terry PD, Yan H (2009). Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk: epidemiological and biological evidence. World J Gastroenterol 15, 2204–2213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organisation (2007). Reducing salt intake in populations: report of a WHO forum and technical meeting 5-7 October 2006. World Health Organisation: Paris, France.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Federal Public Service of Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S Vandevijvere.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Vandevijvere, S., De Keyzer, W., Chapelle, JP. et al. Estimate of total salt intake in two regions of Belgium through analysis of sodium in 24-h urine samples. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 1260–1265 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2010.148

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2010.148

Keywords

  • salt intake
  • urine samples
  • Belgium

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links