Table 4: Dietary reference intake values for total water in Europe

From: Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration

Life stage groupAdequate intake of water for males (ml/day)Adequate intake of water for females (ml/day)
 From foodsaFrom beveragesbTotal waterFrom foodsaFrom beveragesbTotal water
2–3 years39091013003909101300
4–8 years4801120160048011201600
9–13 years6301470210057013301900
>14 years7501750250060014002000
Pregnancy   69016102300c
Lactation   60021002700d
  1. a Foods with a wide range of water content (<40 to >80%).
  2. b It is normally assumed that the contribution of food to total dietary water intake is 20–30%, whereas 70–80% are provided by beverages. This relationship is not fixed and depends on the type of beverages and on the choice of foods.
  3. c There are no European data available, but assuming an increase of energy intake of 15% (equivalent to 300 kcal/day), an additional total water intake of 300 ml would be adequate (EFSA, 2008).
  4. d Adequate water intakes for lactating women are about 700 ml/day above the adequate intakes of nonlactating women of the same age (EFSA, 2008).