Table 3: Dietary reference intake values for total water in the United States (Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Washington DC)

From: Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration

Life stage groupCriterionAI for males in l/dayaAI for females in l/daya
  From foodsFrom beveragesTotal waterbFrom foodsFrom beveragesTotal waterb
0–6 monthsAverage consumption of water from human milk00.70.700.70.7
7–12 monthsAverage consumption of water from human milk and complementary foods0.20.60.80.20.60.8
1–3 yearsMedian total water intake from NHANES III0.40.91.30.40.91.3
4–8 yearsMedian total water intake from NHANES III0.51.21.70.51.21.7
9–13 yearsMedian total water intake from NHANES III0.61.82.40.51.62.1
14–18 yearsMedian total water intake from NHANES III0.72.63.30.51.82.3
>19 yearsMedian total water intake from NHANES III0.73.03.70.52.22.7
Pregnancy 14–50 yearsMedian total water intake from NHANES III   0.72.33.0
Lactation 14–50 yearsMedian total water intake from NHANES III   0.73.13.8
  1. Abbreviations: AI, adequate intake; NHANES III, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
  2. a The AI is not equivalent to the recommended dietary allowances, RDA.
  3. b Total water represents drinking water, other beverages and water from food.