Table 3 Dietary reference intake values for total water in the United States (Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Washington DC)

From: Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration

Life stage group Criterion AI for males in l/day a AI for females in l/day a
   From foods From beverages Total water b From foods From beverages Total water b
0–6 months Average consumption of water from human milk 0 0.7 0.7 0 0.7 0.7
7–12 months Average consumption of water from human milk and complementary foods 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.8
1–3 years Median total water intake from NHANES III 0.4 0.9 1.3 0.4 0.9 1.3
4–8 years Median total water intake from NHANES III 0.5 1.2 1.7 0.5 1.2 1.7
9–13 years Median total water intake from NHANES III 0.6 1.8 2.4 0.5 1.6 2.1
14–18 years Median total water intake from NHANES III 0.7 2.6 3.3 0.5 1.8 2.3
>19 years Median total water intake from NHANES III 0.7 3.0 3.7 0.5 2.2 2.7
Pregnancy 14–50 years Median total water intake from NHANES III     0.7 2.3 3.0
Lactation 14–50 years Median total water intake from NHANES III     0.7 3.1 3.8
  1. Abbreviations: AI, adequate intake; NHANES III, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
  2. a The AI is not equivalent to the recommended dietary allowances, RDA.
  3. b Total water represents drinking water, other beverages and water from food.