Table 1: Water balance in sedentary adults living in temperate climate

From: Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration

 Water inputs (ml/day) Water outputs (ml/day)
 MinMaxAverage MinMaxAverage
Beverages1400a1750a1575Urine120020001600
Foodsb600a750a675Skin450450450c
Subtotal2000d2500e2250Respiration250c350c300
Metabolic water250350300Faeces100300200c
Total225028502550Total200031002550
  1. a It is normally assumed that the contribution of food to total dietary water intake is 20–30%, whereas 70–80% are provided by beverages. This relationship is not fixed and depends on the type of beverages and on the choice of foods.
  2. b Foods with a wide range of water content (<40 to >80%).
  3. c (EFSA, 2008).
  4. d Average total water intakes in sedentary women (EFSA, 2008).
  5. e Average total water intakes in sedentary men (EFSA, 2008).