Figure 1

From: Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration

Figure 1

Feedback loops for water balance: main perturbations and physiological responses to hypertonic dehydration due to a negative water balance. Solid arrows show the responses induced by osmoreceptors when plasma osmotic pressure increases. Dashed arrows show the corrective mechanisms induced by insufficient water intake and a decreased blood volume to restore blood volume and blood pressure. Note that in the case of hypotonic dehydration due to a positive water balance, all perturbations and physiological responses that are induced occur in the reverse direction.