Table 5 Hazard ratios (95% CI) of hypertension according to the joint classification by energy-adjusted olive oil consumption (cutoff point=median consumption) and by the consumption of F&V in the SUN Cohorta

From: Role of vegetables and fruits in Mediterranean diets to prevent hypertension

Servings per day of F&V 2 2.1–4.0 4.1–4.9 5 P for trend
Low olive oil (<15 gram per day)
 N 629 1623 737 1295  
 Cases 40 89 46 50  
 Persons-years 2453 6330 2874 5051  
 Rate per 1000 16.3 14.1 16.0 9.9  
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)b 1 (ref.) 0.88 (0.60–1.30) 0.90 (0.57–1.41) 0.56 (0.35–0.89) 0.008
High olive oil (15 gram per day)
 N 451 1546 706 1607  
 Cases 20 70 29 82  
 Person*Y 1759 6029 2753 6267  
 Rate per 1000 11.4 11.6 10.5 13.1  
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)b 1 (ref.) 0.88 (0.52–1.49) 0.84 (0.46–1.55) 1.12 (0.64–1.96) 0.249
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence intervals; F&V, fruit and vegetable; HR, hazard ratio; SUN, Seguimiento University of Navarra.
  2. aInteraction (product-term: olive oil × F&V) P=0.01.
  3. bAdjusted for age, gender, total energy intake, BMI, physical activity, alcohol, family history of hypertension, sodium intake, low-fat dairy intake, whole grains intake, fish intake and smoking.