Table 3 Hazard ratios (95% CI) of hypertension according to servings per day of fruit consumption in the SUN cohort

From: Role of vegetables and fruits in Mediterranean diets to prevent hypertension

Servings per day of fruits 1 1.1–2 2.1–3 3.1–4 >4 P for trend
N 2033 2701 1754 932 1174  
New cases 103 127 92 54 54  
Persons-years 7929 10 534 6841 3635 4579  
Rate per 1000 13.0 12.1 13.4 14.9 11.8  
HR (95% CI)a 1 (ref.) 0.92 (0.71–1.19) 1.05 (0.79–1.39) 1.13 (0.81–1.57) 0.93 (0.67–1.29) 0.96
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b 1 (ref.) 0.89 (0.68–1.15) 0.96 (0.72–1.28) 1.06 (0.76–1.49) 0.87 (0.62–1.21) 0.66
Multivariate HR (95% CI)c 1 (ref.) 0.86 (0.66–1.13) 0.94 (0.70–1.27) 1.02 (0.72–1.45) 0.85 (0.59–1.22) 0.70
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence intervals; HR, hazard ratio; ref., reference; SUN, Seguimiento University of Navarra.
  2. aUnadjusted model.
  3. bAdjusted for age and gender.
  4. cAdjusted for age, gender, total energy intake, BMI, physical activity, alcohol, family history of hypertension, sodium intake, low-fat dairy intake, whole grains intake, fish intake and smoking.