Table 1 Distribution of potential confounding variables across servings per day of F&V consumptiona

From: Role of vegetables and fruits in Mediterranean diets to prevent hypertension

F&V, servings per day 2 2.1–4 4.1–4.99 5
Participants (n) 1080 3169 1443 2902
Age (y) 38.9 (10.1) 40.4 (10.4) 41.9 (11.0) 42.1 (11.8)
Sex (% female) 48.4 56.2 65.6 72.1
BMI (kg m−2) 23.3 (3.5) 23.1 (3.3) 22.9 (3.2) 22.8 (3.1)
Physical activity (MET h per week) 18.9 (18.1) 20.9 (19.3) 22.4 (18.4) 25.8 (24.1)
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 10.2 12.8 12.5 13.5
Diabetes (%) 0.5 0.7 0.7 1.7
Family history of hypertension (%) 30.8 34.0 35.3 37.0
Smoking status (%)
 Never 44.6 47.2 48.2 49.8
 Former 34.0 28.3 24.5 22.4
 Current 21.4 24.4 27.3 27.8
Alcohol intake (g per day) 6.9 (11.3) 6.5 (9.5) 6.1 (8.7) 5.4 (8.0)
Sodium intake (g per day) 3.3 (2.4) 3.5 (2.3) 3.5 (2.3) 3.5 (2.2)
Potassium intake (g per day) 3.0 (0.9) 4.3 (0.8) 4.8 (0.9) 6.1 (1.5)
Magnesium intake (mg per day) 292 (94) 367 (86) 422 (89) 508 (123)
Fiber intake (g per day) 13.8 (5.8) 21.3 (6.1) 27.5 (6.4) 38.1 (12.6)
Caffeine intake (g per day) 44.1 (43) 45.3 (39.3) 44.8 (39.7) 43.5 (39.2)
Olive oil (g per day) 14.0 (15.0) 17.8 (14.9) 19.3 (15.1) 22.1 (16.0)
Low-fat dairy (g per day) 140 (208) 172 (219) 211 (246) 245 (263)
Total energy intake (kJ per day) 8650 (2834) 9743 (2629) 10 279 (2554) 11 091 (2583)
Carbohydrates (% energy intake) 40.2 (8.5) 41.7 (7.0) 42.6 (6.4) 45.3 (7.2)
Protein (% energy intake) 17.8 (4.6) 17.9 (3.1) 18.1 (3.1) 18.0 (3.0)
Lipids (% energy intake) 39.7 (7.3) 38.4 (6.2) 37.5 (5.9) 35.3 (6.4)
SFA (% energy intake) 14.5 (3.8) 13.5 (3.0) 12.8 (2.8) 11.6 (3.0)
MUFA (% energy intake) 16.8 (4.5) 16.4 (3.6) 16.1 (3.5) 15.3 (3.6)
PUFA (% energy intake) 5.7 (1.9) 5.5 (1.6) 5.4 (1.6) 5.0 (1.5)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; F&V, fruit and vegetable; h, hour; kg, kilogram; kJ, kilojoule; MET, metabolic equivalents; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; SFA, saturated fat.
  2. aValues are expressed as means (standard deviation) unless otherwise stated.