Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • NEWS

Mental health apps lean on bots and unlicensed therapists

Martin Barraud/ OJO Images/ Getty

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.



  1. Cuijpers, P. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 28, 139–147 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Cuijpers, P., Donker, T., van Straten, A., Li, J., & Andersson, G. Psychol. Med. 40, 1943–1957 (2010).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Leigh, S. & Flatt, S. Evid.-Based Ment. Health 18, 97–99 (2015).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Wisniewski, S. R., Balasubramani, G. K., McCrone, P. & Brown, G. K. Am. J. Psychiatry 175, 242–250 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Yu, J. S., Szigethy, E., Wallace, M., Solano, F. & Oser, M. Telemed J. E. Health 24, 870–878 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Fitzpatrick, K. K., Darcy, A. & Vierhile, M. JMIR Ment. Health 4, e19 (2017).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Lucas, G. M. et al. Front. Robot. AI 4, 51 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Naar-King, S., Outlaw, A., Green-Jones, M., Wright, K. & Parsons, J. T. J. Physicians Assoc. AIDS Care 7, 868–873 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Goldberg, S. B. et al. J. Couns. Psychol. 63, 1–11 (2016).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Christensen, A. & Jacobson, N. S. Psychol. Sci. 5, 8–14 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links