Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


The sympathetic nervous system arose in the earliest vertebrates

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 629, 46-48 (2024)



  1. Edens, B. M., Stundl, J., Urrutia, H. A. & Bronner, M. E. Nature 629, 121–126 (2024).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Rovainen, C. M. Physiol Rev. 59, 1007–1077 (1979).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Furlan, A. et al. Nature Neurosci 19, 1331–1340 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. An, M., Luo, R. & Henion, P. D. J. Comp. Neurol. 446, 267–275 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Pattyn, A., Morin, X., Cremer, H., Goridis, C. & Brunet, J. F. Nature 399, 366–370 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Stanke, M. et al. Development 126, 4087–4094 (1999).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Pei, D. et al. PLoS Genet. 9, e1003533 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Lucas, M. E., Müller, F., Rüdiger, R., Henion, P. D. & Rohrer, H. Development 133, 4015–4024 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Wertman, J. N. & Berman, J. N. J. Clin. Invest. 133, e167824 (2023).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Morrison, S. F. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 281, R683–R698 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hirsch, M. R., Tiveron, M. C., Guillemot, F., Brunet, J. F. & Goridis, C. Development 125, 599–608 (1998).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests.


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links