Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


It’s time to admit that genes are not the blueprint for life

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 626, 254-255 (2024)



  1. Noble, D. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 166, 3–11 (2021).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Noble, R. & Noble. D. Understanding Living Systems (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2023).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Vane-Wright, R. I. & Corning, P. A. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 139, 341–356 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Corning, P. A. et al. (eds) Evolution “On Purpose”: Teleonomy in Living Systems (MIT Press, 2023).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Competing Interests

The author declares no competing interests.


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links