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Tolu Odumosu didn’t think he had reason to worry when he went up for tenure at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in 2018. His department had been excited to hire him as an assistant professor in 2013, and all had gone well in the third-year review of his progress. But over the next few years, the engineering school that oversaw his department changed its tenure policies. When Odumosu’s time came, his application was lauded by his department, but rejected by the school. He was told that part of the problem was that he hadn’t published any single-author books — the first he’d heard of the requirement.