Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 / 30 days
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 51 print issues and online access
$199.00 per year
only $3.90 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Nature 618, 243-245 (2023)
Updates & Corrections
Correction 13 June 2023: The original version of this article described the investment bank Salomon Brothers as defunct. The bank was acquired by Citigroup in 1997 and Citigroup discontinued use of the name in 2003. There are currently efforts in progress to revive the name.
Black, F. & Scholes, M. J. Polit. Econ. 81, 637–654 (1973).
Merton, R. C. Bell J. Econ. Mgmt Sci. 4, 141–183 (1973).
Merton, R. C. Appendix to Samuelson, P. A. SIAM Rev. 15, 34–38 (1973).
Sprenkle, C. M. Yale Econ. Essays 1, 178–231 (1961).
Samuelson, P. A. Ind. Mgmt Rev. 6, 41–49 (1965).
Davis, M. & Etheridge, A. Louis Bachelier’s Theory of Speculation: The Origins of Modern Finance (Princeton Univ. Press, 2006).
Lo, A. W. Annu. Rev. Financial Econ. 12, 1–18 (2020).
Davis, M. H. A. Mathematical Finance: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford Univ. Press, 2018).
Turfus, C. & Karasinski, P. Wilmott 2021, 26–33 (2021).
Black, F. & Litterman, R. Financial Anal. J. 48, 28–43 (1992).
Black, F. & Litterman, R. J. Fixed Income 1, 7–18 (1991).
Hull, J. Wilmott 2023, 58–60 (2023).
Bouchaud, J. P. Wilmott 2023, 70–72 (2023).
Bühler, H., Gonon, L., Teichmann, J. & Wood, B. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.03042 (2018).
Horvath, B., Muguruza, A. & Tomas, M. Preprint at https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3322085 (2021).
Buehler, H., Horvath, B., Lyons, T., Perez Arribas, I. & Wood, B. Preprint at https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3657366 (2021).
Avellaneda, M. & Stoikov, S. Quant. Finance 8, 217–224 (2008).
The author declares no competing interests.