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The study1 analysed the gender and ethnic profiles of researchers holding three or more NIH grants at the same time. Between 1991 and 2020, such investigators, whom the study dubs ‘super principal investigators’, or ‘super-PIs’, tripled as a proportion of total NIH investigators, from 3.7% to 11.3%, while the percentage of NIH funding allocated to them more than doubled, from 13% to 28%.