Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Learning over a lifetime

An animated illustration showing a walking robot facing unknown obstacles and learning how to overcome them.

Illustration by David Parkins

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


This article is part of Nature Outlook: Robotics and artificial intelligence, an editorially independent supplement produced with the financial support of third parties. About this content.

Updates & Corrections

  • Correction 01 September 2022: An earlier version of this article incorrectly described Bing Liu's field of expertise.


  1. Patterson, D. et al. Preprint at (2021).

  2. Mandivarapu, J. K., Camp, B. & Estrada, R. Front. Artif. Intell. 3, 19 (2020).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Camp, B., Mandivarapu, J. K. & Estrada, R. Preprint at (2020).

Download references


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links