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Arturo Casadevall watched aghast as the number of COVID-19 cases started to climb at the start of the pandemic. But he also saw scope for a solution. For decades, Casadevall, an infectious-disease researcher at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, has been working in the laboratory and in the clinic to unleash the potential of monoclonal antibody therapies — extremely precise drugs made up of the proteins that defend the body against invading microorganisms. With a new virus running rampant and no treatment options available, Casadevall hoped that antibodies would have their chance to shine.