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When US President Joe Biden took office in 2021, he put environmental justice — the quest to address pollution and other harms that disproportionately affect the health of marginalized communities — at the top of his domestic agenda. For the past decade, US researchers and activists have been working with city and state officials to develop a range of scientific tools, from maps and models to air-pollution sensors, that can be used to identify those who are most threatened by a variety of social, geographical and historical inequities. They are now pushing the Biden administration to make good on its promise.