Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


That quick morning coffee might lead to enduring brain changes

Confocal light micrograph of a section through the hippocampus of the human brain showing neurons in green fluorescent.

Caffeine affects gene activity in neurons (green) in a brain region called the hippocampus. Credit: C.J. Guerin, PhD, MRC Toxicology Unit/SPL

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Nature 606, 230 (2022)



  1. Paiva, I. et al. J. Clin. Invest. (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links