Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain
the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in
Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles
Although many PhD students are aware of the limited job prospects in academia, few have the resources or support they need to pursue non-academic careers. In 2020, only 10% of engineering PhD graduates and 16% of those in physical and earth sciences ended up in academic positions in the United States, according to the National Science Foundation Survey of Earned Doctorates.