Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Beads reveal long-distance connections in early Africa

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Nature 601, 199-200 (2022)



  1. Miller, J. M. & Wang, Y. V. Nature 601, 234–239 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Hitchcock, R. K. Botsw. Notes Rec. 44, 93–105 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Wiessner, P. W. Hxaro: A Regional System of Reciprocity for Reducing Risk among the ǃKung San Vol. 1 (Univ. Michigan Press, 1977).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Wiessner, P. in Politics and History in Band Societies 61–84 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982).

    Google Scholar 

  5. Miller, J. M. & Sawchuk, E. A. PloS ONE 14, e0225143 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Collins, B. in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Anthropology (Oxford Univ. Press, 2021).

    Google Scholar 

  7. Stewart, B. A. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 6453–6462 (2020).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. van der Lubbe, H. J. L., Frank, M., Tjallingii, R. & Schneider, R. R. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 17, 181–198 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kivisto, S. Evaluating Paleoenvironmental and Landscape Mobility Dynamics: Stable Isotope and Strontium Isotope Analyses of Ostrich Eggshell at Spitzkloof Rockshelter, South Africa. Master’s thesis, Univ. Toronto (2016).

  10. Miller, J. M. Variability in Ostrich Eggshell Beads from the Middle and Later Stone Age of Africa. PhD thesis, Univ. Alberta (2019).

Download references

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests.


Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links