Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


A bridge across the democracy–expertise divide

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 596, 493-494 (2021)



  1. Flanigan, B., Gölz, P., Gupta, A., Hennig, B. & Procaccia, A. D. Nature 596, 548–552 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Setälä, M. & Smith, G. in The Oxford Handbook of Deliberative Democracy (eds Bächtiger, A., Dryzek, J. S., Mansbridge, J. & Warren, M. E.) 300–314 (Oxford Univ. Press, 2018).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Fishkin, J. S. Democracy When the People are Thinking: Revitalizing Our Politics Through Public Deliberation (Oxford Univ. Press, 2018) .

    Google Scholar 

  4. Gastil, J. & Knobloch, K. Hope for Democracy: How Citizens Can Bring Reason Back into Politics (Oxford Univ. Press, 2020).

    Google Scholar 

  5. Warren, M. E., & Gastil, J. J. Polit. 77, 562–574 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. OECD. Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions: Catching the Deliberative Wave (OECD, 2020).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Competing Interests

The author declares no competing interests.


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links