Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


The fight against fake-paper factories that churn out sham science

Cartoon of researchers looking at a stack of papers with Western Blots. A magnifying glass shows the blots are tadpoles.

Illustration by Ana Kova

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 591, 516-519 (2021)



  1. Behl, C. J. Cell. Biochem. (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Frederickson, R. M. & Herzog, R. W. Mol. Ther. (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Seifert, R. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 394, 431–436 (2021).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Byrne, J. A. & Christopher, J. FEBS Lett. 594, 583–589 (2020).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Christopher, J. FEBS Lett. 592, 3027–3029 (2018).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Qi, C., Zhang, J. & Luo, P. Preprint at bioRxiv (2020).

Download references

Supplementary Information

  1. Nature analysis of papers alleged to come from paper mills


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links