Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

How gut microbes could drive brain disorders

Cartoon showing gut bacteria controlling a brain in a video game

Illustration by Fabio Buonocore

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 590, 22-25 (2021)


Updates & Corrections

  • Correction 08 February 2021: An earlier version of this Feature erroneously located McMaster University in Toronto.


  1. Neufeld, K. M., Kang, N., Bienenstock, J. & Foster, J. A. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 23, 255–e119 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Friedland, R. P. J. Alzheimer’s Dis. 45, 349–362 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Chen, S. G. et al. Sci. Rep. 6, 34477 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Sampson, T. R. et al. eLife 9, e53111 (2020).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Svensson, E. et al. Ann. Neurol. 78, 522–529 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Kim, S. et al. Neuron 103, 627–641 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Blacher, E. et al. Nature 572, 474–480 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. de la Rubia, J. E. et al. Amyotroph. Lateral Scler. Frontotemp. Degen. 20, 115–122 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. al-Haddad, B. J. S. et al. JAMA Psychiatry 76, 594–602 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Careaga, M., Murai, T. & Bauman, M. D. Biol. Psychiatry 81, 391–401 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Yim, Y. S. et al. Nature 549, 482–487 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Kim, S. et al. Nature 549, 528–532 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Sgritta, M. et al. Neuron 101, 246–259 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Benakis, C. et al. Nature Med. 22, 516–523 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Nature Careers


  • Director for the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison seeks a Director for the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (WNPRC).

    Madison, Wisconsin

    University of Wisconsin-Madison Office of Vice Chancellor for Research

  • Postdoctoral Fellow

    New Orleans, Louisiana

    Tulane University School of Medicine

  • Assistant Professor

    The Department of Human Genetics at the University of Michigan Medical School (Ann Arbor, Michigan) seeks to fill two tenure-track faculty position...

    Ann Arbor, Michigan

    University of Michigan - Human Genetics

  • Assistant Professor Tenure-Track Faculty Position

    UGA seeks vibrant candidates for tenure-track Assistant Professor position in the Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM). Attractive startup package.

    Athens, Georgia

    Center for Molecular Medicine at the University of Georgia

  • Research Associate (Clinical Research)

    Houston, Texas (US)

    Baylor College of Medicine (BCM)

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links