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Scientists in Spain are cautiously celebrating a remarkable boost to their research budget, which they hope could reverse some of the damage done by a decade of deep cuts. On 27 October, the Spanish government presented Parliament with its 2021 budget, which increases the science ministry’s funds by nearly 60% compared with 2020. If approved, the boost would raise the ministry’s budget to €3.2 billion (US$3.8 billion) — the most ever earmarked for science in Spain. But some researchers fear that the windfall, which comes courtesy of a European Commission COVID-19 recovery fund, could be short-lived.