Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Potentially harmful aerosols concentrate in European urban centres

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 587, 369-370 (2020)



  1. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Review of Evidence on Health Aspects of Air Pollution — REVIHAAP Project (WHO, 2013).

  2. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Final Report, Dec 2019) (EPA, 2019).

  3. Daellenbach, K. R. et al. Nature 587, 414–419 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (Final Report, 2004) (EPA, 2004).

  5. Jimenez, J. L. et al. Science 326, 1525–1529 (2009).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Nel, A. Science 308, 804–806 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Li, N. et al. Environ. Health Perspect. 111, 455–460 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Ayres, J. G. et al. Inhal. Toxicol. 20, 75–99 (2008).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Lelieveld, J., Evans, J. S., Fnais, M., Giannadaki, D. & Pozzer, A. Nature 525, 367–371 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Bates, J. T. et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 53, 4003–4019 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Bates, J. T. et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 13605–13612 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Yang, A. et al. Occup. Environ. Med. 73, 154–160 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links