Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


The best time to argue about what a replication means? Before you do it

Cartoon of a spot-the-difference game showing two lab scenes that are similar but with obvious differences

Illustration by David Parkins

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 583, 518-520 (2020)



  1. Errington, T. M. et al. eLife 3, e04333 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Fung, J. J. et al. eLife 4, e08997 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Shan, X., Fung, J. J. & Kosaka, A. eLife 6, e25306 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Gibson, C. E., Losee, J. & Vitiello, C. Soc. Psychol. 45, 194–198 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Moon, A. & Roeder, S. S. Soc. Psychol. 45, 199–201 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Nosek, B. A. & Errington, T. M. PLoS Biol. 18, e3000691 (2020).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Chambers, C. Nature 573, 187–189 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Nosek, B. A. & Lakens, D. Soc. Psychol. 45, 137–141 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Calin-Jageman, R. J. & Caldwell, T. L. Soc. Psychol. 45, 239–245 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ebersole, C. R., Axt, J. R. & Nosek, B. A. PLoS Biol. 14, e1002460 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Kahneman, D. Am. Psychol. 58, 723–730 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Matzke, D. et al. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 144, e1–e15 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Ellemers, N., Fiske, S. T., Abele, A. E., Koch, A. & Yzerbyt, V. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 7561–7567 (2020).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links