Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Crystallization tracked atom by atom

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 570, 450-452 (2019)



  1. Zhou, J. et al. Nature 570, 500–503 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Gibbs, J. W. Trans. Connect. Acad. Sci. 3, 108–248 (1876).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Volmer, M. & Schultze, W. Z. Phys. Chem. 156A, 1–22 (1931).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Becker, R. & Döring, W. Ann. Phys. 416, 719–752 (1935).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Zel’dovich, Y. B. Acta Physicochim. URSS 18, 1–22 (1943).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Turnbull, D. J. Chem. Phys. 20, 411–424 (1952).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Auer, S. & Frenkel, D. Nature 409, 1020–1023 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Galkin, O., Chen, K., Nagel, R. L., Hirsch, R. E. & Vekilov, P. G. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 8479–8483 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Yamazaki, T. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 2154–2159 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Ma, X. et al. Nature Mater. 16, 767–774 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Vekilov, P. G. Nanoscale 2, 2346–2357 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Kashchiev, D. J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1837–1851 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kashchiev, D. Nucleation. Basic Theory with Applications (Butterworth Heinemann, 2000).

    Google Scholar 

  14. Gasser, U., Weeks, E., Schofield, A., Pusey, P. & Weitz, D. Science 292, 258–262 (2001).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Yau, S.-T. & Vekilov, P. G. Nature 406, 494–497 (2000).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Cahn, J. W. & Hilliard, J. E. J. Chem. Phys. 28, 258–267 (1958).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links