Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


A role for optics in AI hardware

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Nature 569, 199-200 (2019)



  1. Agrell, E. et al. J. Opt. 18, 063002 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Karim, M. A. & Awwal, A. A. S. Optical Computing: An Introduction (Wiley, 1992).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Miller, D. A. B. J. Lightwave Tech. 35, 346–396 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Feldmann, J., Youngblood, N., Wright, C. D., Bhaskaran, H. & Pernice, W. H. P. Nature 569, 208–214 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Sze, V., Chen, Y.-H., Yang, T.-J. & Emer, J. S. Proc. IEEE 105, 2295–2329 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Haensch, W., Gokmen, T. & Puri, R. Proc. IEEE 107, 108–122 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Burr, G. W. Nature Mach. Intell. 1, 10–11 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Tait, A. N. et al. Sci. Rep. 7, 7430 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Padmaraju, K. & Bergman, K. Nanophotonics 3, 269–281 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Soref, R. & Bennett, B. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Xu, Q. & Lipson, M. Optics Expr. 15, 924–929 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Ríos, C. et al. Nature Photonics 9, 725–732 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Shen, Y. et al. Nature Photonics 11, 441–446 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links