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An effort to bring more women into academia by mandating gender quotas in hiring committees at French universities might have backfired, according to a study of decisions in 455 hiring committees at 3 institutions. The analysis suggests that committees affected by the quota were significantly less likely to hire women — perhaps because of retaliation from men who are miffed by the policy, says study author Pierre Deschamps, an economist at the Paris Institute for Political Studies (LIEPP). The study was posted as a SciencesPo LIEPP Working Paper in November 2018.