Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Vaccine candidates for poor nations are going to waste

Women in a hospital ward with malaria bed nets in Bunia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 564, 337-339 (2018)



  1. Nussenzweig, R. S., Vanderberg, J., Most, H. & Orton, C. Nature 216, 160–162 (1967).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Ellis, J. et al. Nature 302, 536–538 (1983).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Cochrane, A. H., Santoro, F., Nussenzweig, V., Gwadz, R. W. & Nussenzweig, R. S. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5651–5655 (1982).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Stoute, J. A. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 86–91 (1997).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Alonso, P. L. et al. Lancet 364, 1411–1420 (2004).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership. Lancet 386, 31–45 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bloom, D. E., Fan, V. Y. & Sevilla, J. P. Sci. Transl. Med. 10, eaaj2345 (2018).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Trotter, C. L. et al. Lancet Infect. Dis. 17, 867–872 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Mustapha, M. M. & Harrison, L. H. Hum. Vaccin. Immunother. 14, 1107–1115 (2018).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Roberts, L. Science 320, 1710–1715 (2008).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Thompson, K. M. et al. Risk Anal. 26, 1571–1580 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Competing Interests

S.B. is a consultant for GSK, Takeda and Sutrovax.

D.E.B. has been in receipt of grants, travel grants, and/or personal fees from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the World Health Organization, Merck, Pfizer, GSK, Sanofi Pasteur, and Sanofi Pasteur-MSD (all related to his research on the value of vaccination).

M.D. is currently employed by a vaccine manufacturer, Biological E.

D.S. has acted as a paid consultant to vaccine manufacturers and was Chair of WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts 2006–10. He was Director of Immunisation at the Department of Health, London, until 2013.

R.R. is currently a full-time employee of GSK group of companies.


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links