Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


How biologists are creating life-like cells from scratch

Illustration by David McLeod

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 563, 172-175 (2018)



  1. Loose, M., Fischer-Friedrich, E., Ries, J., Kruse, K. & Schwille, P. Science 320, 789–792 (2008)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Litschel, T., Ramm, B., Maas, R., Heymann, M. & Schwille, P. Angew. Chem. Int. Edn (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Deshpande, S., Caspi, Y., Meijering, A. E. C. & Dekker, C. Nature Commun. 7, 10447 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Deshpande, S., Spoelstra, W. K., van Doorn, M., Kerssemakers, J. & Dekker, C. ACS Nano 12, 2560−2568 (2018).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Wu, F., van Schie, B. G., Keymer, J. E. & Dekker, C. Nature Nanotechnol. 10, 719–726 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Weiss, M. et al. Nature Mater. 17, 89–96 (2018).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Schwander, T., von Borzyskowski, L. S., Burgener, S., Cortina, N. S. & Erb, T. J. Science 354, 900–904 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Adamala, K. P., Martin-Alarcon, D. A., Guthrie-Honea, K. R. & Boyden, E. S. Nature Chem. 9, 431–439 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Gibson, D. G. et al. Science 329, 52–56 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Hutchinson, C. A. et al. Science 351, aad6253 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links