Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Will ocean zones with low oxygen levels expand or shrink?

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Nature 557, 314-315 (2018)



  1. Schmidtko, S., Stramma, L. & Visbeck, M. Nature 542, 335–339 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Levin, L. A. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 10, 229–260 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Stramma, L., Johnson, G. C., Sprintall, J. & Mohrholz, V. Science 320, 655–658 (2008).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Keeling, R. F., Körtzinger, A. & Gruber, N. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2, 199–229 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Fu, W., Primeau, F., Moore, J. K., Lindsay, K. & Randerson, J. T. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Brandt, P. et al. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40, 1784–1801 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Deutsch, C. et al. Science 345, 665–668 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Banse, K., Naqvi, S. W. A., Narvekar, P. V., Postel, J. R. & Jayakumar, D. A. Biogeosciences 11, 2237–2261 (2014).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Behrenfeld, M. J. Nature Clim. Change 4, 880–887 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gnanadesikan, A., Russell, J. L. & Zeng, F. Ocean Sci. 3, 43-53 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cabré, A., Marinov, I., Bernardello, R. & Bianchi, D. Biogeosciences 12, 5429–5454 (2015).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Babbin, A. R., Bianchi, D., Jayakumar, A. & Ward, B. B. Science 348, 1127–1129 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Gruber, N. in The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate (eds Follows, M. & Oguz, T.) 97–148 (Springer, 2004).

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bopp, L. et al. Biogeosciences 10, 6225–6245 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bopp, L., Resplandy, L., Untersee, A., Le Mezo, P. & Kageyama, M. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 375, 20160323 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Shigemitsu, M., Yamamoto, A., Oka, A. & Yamanaka, Y. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 31, 804–820 (2017).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Oschlies, A. et al. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 375, 20160325 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Latest on:

Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links