Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Oceans on Mars formed early

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Nature 555, 590-591 (2018)



  1. Parker, T. J., Gorsline, D. S., Saunders, R. S., Pieri, D. C. & Schneeberger, D. M. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 98, 11061–11078 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Malin, M. C. & Edgett, K. S. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3049–3052 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Citron, R. I., Manga, M. & Hemingway, D. J. Nature 555, 643–646 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bouley, S. et al. Nature 531, 344–347 (2016).

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Carr, M. H. Water on Mars 197 (Oxford Univ. Press, 1996).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Baker, V. R. et al. Nature 352, 589–594 (1991).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Head, J. W. III et al. Science 286, 2134–2137 (1999).

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Mouginot, J., Pommerol, A., Beck, P., Kofman, W. & Clifford, S. M. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, l02202 (2012).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Villanueva, G. L. et al. Science 348, 218–221 (2015).

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Perron, J. T., Mitrovica, J. X., Manga, M., Matsuyama, I. & Richards, M. A. Nature 447, 840–843 (2007).

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Goldreich, P. & Toomre, A. J. Geophys. Res. 74, 2555–2567 (1969).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Roberts, J. H. & Zhong, S. Icarus 190, 24–31 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Matsuyama, I. & Manga, M. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 115, E12020 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Clifford, S. M. & Parker, T. J. Icarus 154, 40–79 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Carr, M. H. & Head, J. W. III J. Geophys. Res. Planets 108, 5042 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Nature Careers


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing


Quick links