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Disruptions in the development of cell and gene therapies

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Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 21, 171 (2022)



The authors wish to thank Katarzyna Smietana, Edd Fleming, Lieven Van Der Veken and Matthias Evers for their discussions and contributions.

Supplementary Information

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Competing Interests

The authors of this article are employees of McKinsey & Company, a management consultancy that works with organizations across the private, public and social sectors, including with the world’s leading biopharmaceutical and biotech companies on clinical development topics. The analysis in this study was funded by McKinsey’s Life Science practice and undertaken independently of any other organizations.

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