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Cancer drugs account for an estimated one-quarter of the overall drug discovery pipeline, and of new drug approvals each year. And yet, many of these efforts focus on the same biological opportunities. Some 3,300 trials, in a combined 500,000 patients, are exploring how to make the most of the PD1/PDL1 axis, for example. While some of these trials will help some patients, other therapeutic strategies are also needed to reduce the burden of the disease.