The pathway of miRNA regulation of gene expression. The maturation of miRNAs includes the production of the primary miRNA transcript (pri-miRNA) by RNA polymerase II or III and cleavage of the pri-miRNA by the microprocessor complex Drosha–DGCR8 (Pasha) in the nucleus. Then the pre-miRNA hairpin is exported from the nucleus by Exportin-5–Ran-GTP. In the cytoplasm, the RNase Dicer in complex with the double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP cleaves the pre-miRNA hairpin to its mature length. The functional strand of the mature miRNA is loaded together with Argonaute (Ago2) proteins into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), where it guides the RISC to silence target mRNAs through mRNA cleavage, translational repression or deadenylation, whereas the passenger strand is degraded.