Radiotherapy is one of the important treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The treatment response (or efficacy), however, is limited in many patients due to acquired radiation resistance of cancer cells. Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) is one of the genes upregulated on radiation. The gene could modulate cell cycle checkpoint, leading to a decrease of cancer cell survival in response to radiation. To better understand how IRE5 expression is regulated on radiation, this study aims to identify transcription factors that interact with IER5 promoter region in liver cancer cell line. Using bioinformatic tool, we identified promoter region of IER5 gene. Subsequent luciferase reporter assay revealed two putative GC binding factor (GCF) binding sites. We found mutations of these binding sites increased the luciferase activity, suggesting a negative regulation of GCF on IER5 transcriptional activity. The physical interaction of GCF with the gene promoter was confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay assays. Different doses of radiation were also applied in these experiments, and we found the formation of protein-DNA complex reduced with the increasing dose of radiation. Together, we propose the GCF regulated transcriptional activity, at least in part, contributed to the upregulation of IER5 on radiation. The present findings provide insights into understanding the regulatory mechanisms of IER5.
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This study was supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No’s. 30371232; and 30770533) and The National Basic Research Program of MOST, China (973 Program, Grant No. 2007CB914603).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.