Figure 1

From: Killers creating new life: caspases drive apoptosis-induced proliferation in tissue repair and disease

Figure 1

The Spectrum of AiP in wound healing, regeneration, and the development of cancer. On the left, shown are sheets of epithelial cells. On the right, the relative timing of caspase activity, AiP and the recruitment of immune cells as well as cancer cells (c) is illustrated. Based on the variety of caspase-dependent AiP mechanisms, it is clear that the phenomenon of AiP includes a spectrum of functions from simple transient wound healing, to more complex regeneration, to responding to chronic damage and inflammation. (a) Transient AiP is a self-limited proliferation in direct response to caspase activation in some apoptotic cells. (b) AiP associated with more significant or sustained wound healing often requires additional support including from the immune cells recruited by caspase-dependent signals such as extracellular ROS, but eventually resolves upon tissue repair. (c) Caspase-dependent AiP which occurs during ongoing or repeated damage, such as in chronic inflammatory diseases, can lead to an imbalance in cell death versus proliferation, leading to tissue dysplasia, hyperplasia, or possible neoplasia from the AiP stimulation of damaged cells containing new cancer-causing mutations