Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is associated with late adverse effects of therapy, including secondary solid cancers. Most reports address risk factors; however, outcomes after secondary solid cancer development are incompletely described. Our objective was to estimate survival probabilities for transplant recipients dependent on secondary solid cancer subtype. We used a previously identified and published cohort who developed secondary solid cancers following allogeneic transplant. Follow-up for these 112 previously identified patients was extended and their survival probabilities were studied. Median duration of follow-up from the development of secondary cancer for survivors was 11.9 years (range: 0.8–23.4) and 75% were followed >7.0 years. The 5- and 10-year overall survival probabilities were 50% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41–60) and 46% (95% CI: 37–57), respectively. Overall survival varied by secondary cancer type. Secondary cancer was the cause of death in most patients who died following development of melanoma, central nervous system, oral cavity, thyroid, lung, lower gastrointestinal tract and bone cancers. Extended follow-up allowed for the most comprehensive longitudinal evaluation to date of this rare condition. These findings will enhance clinicians' ability to predict outcomes and counsel transplant survivors who develop secondary solid cancers.
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We thank Drs M Kelly, R Tower, J Panepinto, A Brandow, M Eapen, D Margolis, A Maguire and D Mulrooney for their support of and insight into this project. The CIBMTR is supported by Public Health Service Grant/Cooperative Agreement U24-CA076518 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); a Grant/Cooperative Agreement 5U10HL069294 from NHLBI and NCI; a contract HHSH250201200016C with Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA/DHHS); two Grants N00014-12-1-0142 and N00014-13-1-0039 from the Office of Naval Research.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Ehrhardt, M., Brazauskas, R., He, W. et al. Survival of patients who develop solid tumors following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 51, 83–88 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2015.203
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