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Hematopoietic SCT activity in Asia: a report from the Asia-Pacific Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group

Abstract

The hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) activity in nine Asian countries/regions was surveyed to overview the current situation. Data of 58 113 HSCTs (allogeneic: 63% vs autologous: 37%) performed between 1986 and 2006 by 432 transplant teams were collected. The number of HSCTs has been increasing in the past two decades in most countries/regions. The increase in allogeneic HSCTs is greater than in autologous HSCTs. The proportion of unrelated donors among allogeneic HSCTs in 2006 varied widely from <1% (Iran and Vietnam) to 62% (Japan). The use of each stem cell source, that is, BM, PBSC, cord blood and others (including co-infusion of BM and PBSC), also varied widely (36, 58, 0.1 and 6% in HSCT from related donors, respectively, and 53, 11, 35 and 1% in HSCT from unrelated donors, respectively). HSCTs have been continuously increasing for all indications except for chronic myelogenous leukemia and solid tumors. Hemoglobinopathy is a common indication among non-malignant diseases in many Asian countries/regions except for China, Japan and Korea. This survey clearly shows the recent progress of HSCTs in Asia and also some differences in donor and stem cell selection and disease application among countries/regions.

Introduction

Hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is now an established treatment procedure for many patients suffering from various malignant and non-malignant diseases.1, 2, 3 Over the past two decades, its use has expanded rapidly, and many changes and progress have occurred in technology, stem cell sources and infrastructure. The activity and the trends of HSCTs are different among countries, reflecting the different disease prevalences, economic situations and availability of donor programs.4 HSCT is still a challenge for several countries with low incomes because of its high cost of establishment and maintenance of HSCT system. Recent reports on HSCT from Asian countries suggest the progress of HSCT in this region.5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 However, no comprehensive picture of the current state of HSCT in Asia has been obtained. The Asia-Pacific region consists of countries with various ethnic, economical and social backgrounds. The Asia-Pacific Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (APBMT) was established in 1990 to promote HSCT in Asia (http://www.apbmt.org). In 2006, its data center was established to develop the APBMT Registry to collect data on HSCT in this region. As a first step, we performed a retrospective transplant activity survey to provide an overview of the current state of HSCT in nine Asian countries.

Materials and methods

Data collection

The data on transplants performed between 1986 and 2006 in nine Asian countries/regions (mainland China, Hong Kong, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Vietnam) were collected according to each disease indication, donor type and stem cell source, using a simple survey sheet. The data were submitted to the APBMT data center through the national/regional registries in Japan, Korea, Malaysia and Taiwan. In Japan, the data were collected by paper forms or using a new electronic registration system, TRUMP (Transplant Registry Unified Management Program), as previously reported.3, 22 In Hong Kong, Iran, Singapore and Vietnam, the APBMT data center contacted the major transplant centers in each country/region. It was estimated by each APBMT regional coordinator that 80–100% of all transplants performed between 1986 and 2006 were captured in each country/region except for mainland China. In mainland China, where there are more than 50 transplant centers,5 data from only 12 centers could be collected. The information on population and the World Bank's income category based on the Gross National Income per capita were collected from the following websites (http://www.census.gov and http://www.worldbank.org, respectively). According to the criteria set by the World Bank, each country's economic status was classified as low income, middle income (subdivided into lower middle and upper middle) or high income (Table 1). The list of the participating centers is shown in the Appendix according to the countries/regions.

Table 1 Baseline data of each country/region

Results

Number of transplants

Transplant data of 58 113 HSCTs from 432 teams in nine countries/regions were submitted to the APBMT Data Center. The number of participating transplant teams, the reported numbers of HSCTs between 1986 and 2006 and the reported numbers of performed HSCTs in 2006 are shown in Table 2. The information on population, the World Bank's income category and the availability of donor programs and cord blood (CB) banks in each country/region are also shown in Table 1. The largest number of transplants was performed in Japan with a total of 38 523 transplants, followed by Korea with 9570.

Table 2 Numbers of institutes and transplants in each country/region

Allogeneic vs autologous HSCTs

The total reported number of HSCTs in the study period is increasing in all countries/regions, except for Vietnam. As shown in Table 2, the number of HSCTs performed per 10 million people was higher in the countries/regions with higher incomes (Japan, Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong) than in those with middle/low incomes. The number of HSCTs performed in the nine countries/regions in 2006 was 6418, which has doubled in the past 10 years (n=2734 in 1996). The number of allogeneic HSCT has been consistently increasing in this study period, but the increase in autologous HSCT has slowed down since 1998 (Figure 1a). Of 6418 HSCTs performed in 2006, 3992 (62%) were allogeneic and 2416 (38%) were autologous. In most countries/regions, the number of allogeneic HSCT was larger than autologous HSCT (Figure 1b).

Figure 1
figure1

Activity of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in nine Asian countries/regions. (a) Trends of the total numbers of autologous HSCTs and allogeneic HSCTs from related and unrelated donors in nine countries/regions are shown. (b) The proportions of autologous and allogeneic HSCTs from related and unrelated donors in 2006 in each country/region are shown. CHN, mainland China; HKG, Hong Kong; IRN, Iran; JPN, Japan; KRA, Korea; SGP, Singapore; TWN, Taiwan; VNM, Vietnam.

Related vs unrelated donors

As shown in Figure 1a, the total number of HSCTs from unrelated donors in the nine countries/regions has been increasing in the study period and exceeded the number of HSCTs from related donors in 2006. The number of related HSCTs has stabilized since 2002. However, the proportion of related and unrelated HSCTs differed among countries/regions. Recently, the number of unrelated HSCTs was higher than or equal to that of related HSCTs in Japan, Korea and Singapore (Figure 1b). In other countries/regions the proportion of related HSCTs was higher. In Iran and Vietnam, only a few unrelated HSCTs were performed.

Trends of HSCTs in each country/region

The trends of autologous and allogeneic HSCTs in each country/region are shown in Figure 2. Autologous transplant was increasing in all Asian countries (Figure 2a). An increase in the number of related HSCTs has been observed in China and Iran since 2000, although it was only recently stabilized in other countries (Figure 2b). Unrelated HSCTs were increasing in most of the countries except for Iran and Vietnam in the study period (Figure 2c).

Figure 2
figure2

Trends of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). Numbers of autologous (a) and allogeneic HSCTs from related (b) and unrelated donors (c) in each year are plotted. See legend to Figure 1 for abbreviations.

Stem cell source

The stem cell source of autologous HSCT has changed from BM to PBSC, and 95% of autologous HSCTs were PBSC transplantations (PBSCTs) in 2006. For related HSCT, a shift of stem cell source from BM to PBSC was also observed, and the number of PBSCTs has exceeded that of BMTs since 2001 (Figure 3a). In 2006, the number of PBSCTs was higher than that of BMTs in most countries/regions, except for China, Hong Kong and Japan (Figure 3b). In China, transplants of both BM and PBSC from a haplo-identical familial donor, which was designated as other stem cell source in this survey, were recently performed in large numbers.23 In Hong Kong and Japan, the numbers of BMTs and PBSCTs were almost equal in 2006.

Figure 3
figure3

Stem cell sources of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). (a) Trends of the total number of stem cell sources for allogeneic HSCTs from related and unrelated donors in nine Asian countries/regions. CBT, cord blood transplantation. (b) The proportion of each stem cell source for allogeneic HSCT from related and unrelated donors in 2006 in each country/region. The data from Iran and Vietnam for allogeneic HSCTs from unrelated donors indicate all transplants between 1986 and 2006 because of the low numbers of HSCTs from unrelated donors in these two countries. See legend to Figure 1 for abbreviations.

For unrelated HSCTs, all types of stem cell sources (BM, PBSC and CB) have been continuously increasing in the study period (Figure 3a). In 2006, the annual number of unrelated BMTs, unrelated PBSCTs and cord blood transplantations (CBTs) were 1087, 229 and 701, respectively. However, as shown in Figure 3b, the proportion of each stem cell source varied among countries/regions. In China and Taiwan, a large proportion of the unrelated HSCTs performed were PBSCTs. In contrast, almost no unrelated PBSCTs were performed in Japan. In Iran and Vietnam, where only a few unrelated HSCTs have been performed, all unrelated HSCTs were CBTs. The recent increase in CBT was most prominent in Japan, where 593 CBTs were performed in 2006.

Disease indication

The diseases requiring HSCTs in each country/region between 1986 and 2006 are depicted in Figure 4. The most common indication for HSCT was hematological malignancy in all countries/regions (72–94% of all HSCTs). The proportions of solid tumors ranged between 0% in Vietnam to 11% in Japan. Among non-malignant diseases, hemoglobinopathy was one of the most common diseases in Asian countries/regions, except for China, Korea and Japan, where no or very few transplants for this disorder were reported.

Figure 4
figure4

Disease indications of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). Proportions of each category of disease indication in each country/region are shown.

The number of HSCTs for most types of hematological malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant lymphoma, has been increasing in most Asian countries/regions in the study period. However, CML showed a different trend (Figure 5). The number of transplants for CML has decreased since 2000, excluding China and Iran. The proportion of CML out of the total HSCTs was almost stable in Iran and Malaysia from 10 to 20%. The ratio was decreasing in Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. HSCTs for solid tumors also showed a unique trend. In Japan, the number had been increasing until 1998 (n=169 in 1998) and then it decreased (n=41 in 2006).24 In Korea, it also decreased after 1999. In other countries/regions, the number of HSCTs for solid tumors was low and stable.

Figure 5
figure5

Trends of HSCTs for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in each country/region. The number of transplants for CML has decreased since 2000, excluding China and Iran. See legend to Figure 1 for abbreviations.

Discussion

This survey showed that the number of HSCTs performed has been increasing in most Asian countries/regions over the past two decades, although several differences exist in donor selection, transplant procedures and disease indications among countries/regions. HSCT is expensive for all countries. The significant effect of the economic strength of individual countries on HSCT activity was reported by Gratwohl et al.25 Our results are consistent with their findings. The most significant increases in the past 10 years were observed in Iran and China, which have middle incomes. Even in countries/regions of the high-income group (Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Singapore) the number of HSCTs performed has been consistently increasing in the study period and is not likely to reach a plateau any time soon. This suggests that the demand for HSCTs has not been fulfilled in any of these countries. The improving likelihood of finding an HLA matched donor because of expanding donor pools; the development of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, which has broadened the indication of HSCT to older patients; and the increased list of disease indications for HSCT may lead to further increases in the numbers of HSCTs performed.

The high proportion of allogeneic HSCTs compared with autologous HSCTs in most Asian countries/regions (62% in 2006) was in contrast to a report from Europe (39% in 2006).26 However, our results need careful interpretation because of possible reporting bias. The capture rate of autologous HSCTs might be lower than that of allogeneic HSCTs, because some smaller centers, which perform only autologous HSCTs, could not be sufficiently included in this survey.

A notable finding in this study was that there were marked differences in donor and stem cell selections among Asian countries/regions. First of all, the proportion of unrelated HSCTs among allogeneic HSCTs was quite different (62% to <1%). In most of the countries/regions, except for Iran and Vietnam, the number of unrelated HSCTs has been increasing in the study period. This might partially depend on the size of donor pools and the activity of each donor program. A dramatic increase in the number of unrelated HSCTs performed in China was observed after the China Marrow Donor Program started servicing the public in 2001, resulting in the rapid expansion of the donor pool, which is currently the largest among the nine Asian countries/regions (more than 0.7 million donors).5 Unrelated HSCT activity is associated with economic strength.27 Because of the cost of searching for donors, coordination and shipment of the product, unrelated HSCT is more expensive than related HSCT. In this report, the number of unrelated HSCTs was higher in countries with higher incomes, which is consistent with a report from Europe.27 The high use of unrelated HSCTs in Japan was, in part, dependent on the limited HLA diversity of Japanese population because of the historical isolation of island country, and low incidence of GVHD.28

Another interesting finding in this study is the difference of stem cell source for both unrelated and related HSCTs. For related HSCTs in 2006, the proportion of PBSCTs was higher than that of BMTs in many countries/regions, which was consistent with reports from Europe.4, 26 However, China showed the unique use of transplants involving combined BM and PBSC from haplo-identical donors, which made up a large proportion of the related HSCTs.5, 23 This procedure was intensively studied because of the decreasing family size in China.5 The stem cell source of unrelated HSCTs largely depended on the policy of the donor program of each country. The Japan Marrow Donor Program provided only BM, but the China Marrow Donor Program provided only PBSCs. It is noteworthy that CBT made up 35% of unrelated HSCTs in 2006, which was larger than that reported by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).27 CB banks have been established, and unrelated CBT has been performed in all countries/regions. CB seems to be an important stem cell source in Asian countries/regions.

There was a marked difference in disease indications for HSCTs among APBMT countries/regions. Disease prevalence might be one of the factors that influence the activity of HSCT. Thalassemia is common in South and Southeast Asia, but rare in Northeast Asia. A high proportion of HSCTs for this disorder was noted in the former region. The numbers of HSCTs performed for most diseases are increasing in the study period, but those for CML and solid tumors were exceptions. Gratwohl et al.29 also reported marked differences in the trends of HSCTs for CML among European countries, reflecting the economic strength of each country. The dramatic decrease of HSCTs for CML since 1999 after the introduction of imatinib, which was observed in Asian countries/regions with high incomes and some with middle incomes, was similar to the phenomenon observed in European countries with high incomes.29 Interestingly, a marked increase in the number of HSCTs for CML has been observed even after 2004 in mainland China and Iran. Imatinib is an expensive agent, which needs to be given to patients for a long period. The consideration of cost effectiveness between these two highly expensive treatments, imatinib and HSCT, by health-care providers in each country may have a great effect on the trends among countries/regions.30 The number of HSCTs for solid tumors has remained low in most Asian countries/regions. In Japan, there was an increase in the number of autologous HSCTs performed for solid tumors, especially for breast cancer, in the 1990s because of expectations of its positive effectiveness on the outcome of patients. However, the disappointing results of several randomized clinical trials called into question its benefits and resulted in decreases in the number of HSCTs performed for breast cancer as well as other solid tumors.31, 32, 33, 34 This trend is similar to that observed in European countries.35

Although this simple survey was able to provide reasonably comprehensive information about the current state of HSCT in Asia, further efforts should be made to establish a registry system to obtain information from all centers and Asian countries/regions that are missing from this study. It is also important to be aware that there are some countries where very few HSCTs are currently performed because of several factors, such as financial restrictions, lack of a national health insurance system and governmental support and an inability to develop local transplant centers.7, 11

A similar survey has been annually reported by the EBMT since 1990 to illustrate the trends of HSCT in European countries in an elegant way.4, 25, 26, 27, 29, 35, 36, 37 Although this study elucidated several differences, such as the proportion of allogeneic and autologous HSCTs between Europe and Asia, there were many similarities in the trends of HSCTs in both regions. This suggests that similar clinical decisions have been made globally in the practice of HSCT, probably because of the rapid spread of information about the technology and the outcome of HSCT. A global transplant activity survey has been recently planned by the EBMT, the Centre for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the APBMT, among others, under the umbrella of the World-wide Network of BMT (http://wbmt.org), which may clarify the global trends of HSCT and provide fundamental information to facilitate international cooperative studies for further improvement of this treatment procedure.

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Acknowledgements

We thank all participating centers and their staff, APBMT members, and the Japanese, Malaysian, Taiwan and Korean registries. We also thank Hiroe Namizaki and Mayuko Masuda for their secretarial assistance.

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Correspondence to R Suzuki.

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Appendix

Appendix

Regional coordinators and the contributing centers are listed according to their countries/regions.

China (mainland)

Coordinator: Dao Pei Lu

Centers: Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital Sun Yat-sen University, Peking University First Hospital, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology: The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Xinqiao Hospital, Union Hospital Fujian Medical University, Union Hospital Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Harbin Hematology and Oncology Research Institution, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing Daopei Hospital, Nanfang Hospital Southern Medical University, The Military General Hospital of Beijing.

Hong Kong

Coordinator: Albert KW Lie

Centers: Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Iran

Coordinator: Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

Centers: Teheran University of Medical Science: Transplant Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

Japan (National Registry)

Coordinators: Ayami Yoshimi, Yoshiko Atsuta, Ritsuro Suzuki, and Yoshihisa Kodera, supported by the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, the Japan Society of Pediatric Hematology, Japan Marrow Donor Program, and Japan Cord Blood Bank Network

Centers: National Hospital Organization Nishigunma National Hospital, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi Medical University Hospital, Aiseikai Yamashina Hospital, Akashi Municipal Hospital, Akita University School of Medicine, Anjo Kosei Hospital, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Asahikawa City Hospital 1, Asahikawa Medical College Hospital, Asahikawa Red Cross Hospital, Chiba Aoba Municipal Hospital, Chiba Children’s Hospital, Chiba University Hospital, Children’s Medical Center, Osaka City General Hospital, Chugoku Rosai General Hospital, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Hospital Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Fuchu Hospital, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fukaya Red Cross Hospital, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Gifu Municipal Hospital, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma Children’s Medical Center, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Hakodate Municipal Hospital, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamanomachi Hospital, Higashi Sapporo Hospital, Hirosaki University Hospital, Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital & Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hirosima-Nishi Medical Center, Hitachi General Hospital, Hokkaido Medical Center for Child Health and Rehabilitation, Hokkaido University Hospital, Hyogo Cancer Center, Hyogo Children’s Hospital, Hyogo College of Medicine, Ibaraki Children’s Hospital, Iizuka Hospital, Imamura Bun-in Hospital, International Medical Center of Japan, Ishikawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Iwaki Kyoritsu General Hospital, Iwate Medical University, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Iwate Prefectural Kitakami Hospital, Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Japanese Red Cross Narita Hospital, Japanese Red Cross Society Wakayama Medical Center, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Jichi Medical University Hospital, Jikei University school of Medicine, Jikei University Kashiwa Hospital, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Kagawa National Children’s Hospital, Kagawa University, Kagoshima City Hospital, Kagoshima University Medical and Dental Hospital, Kameda General Hospital, Kanagawa Cancer Center, Kanagawa Children’s Medical Center, Kanazawa Medical University, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kansai Medical University, Kansai Medical University Hirakata Hospital, Kawasaki Medical School, Keio University School of Medicine, Kin-ikyo Sapporo Hospital, Kinki University School of Medicine, Kishiwada City Hospital, Kita-Fukushima Medical Center, KKR Suifu Hospital, Kobe Central Hospital of Insurance, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kochi Health Sciences Center, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi University, Kokura Memorial Hospital, Komaki City Hospital, Konan Kosei Hospital, Kouseiren Takaoka Hospital, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Kurobe City Hospital, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Kyoto City Hospital, Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto Katsura Hospital, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyushu Kosei-Nenkin Hospital, Kyushu University Hospital, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Matsudo City Hospital, Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital, Matsuzaka General Hospital, Meitetsu Hospital, Mie University Hospital, Mitoyo General Hospital, Miyagi Cancer Center, Miyagi Children’s Hospital, Miyazaki prefectural Miyazaki Hospital, Nagano Children’s Hospital, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya Memorial Hospital, Nakadoori General Hospital, Nara Medical University, National Cancer Center Hospital, National Cancer Center Hospital East, National Center for Child Health and Development, National Defense Medical College Hospital, National Hospital Organization Kyusyu Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Mito Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Osaka Minami Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, Kagoshima Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Minami-Okayama Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center, National Kyushu Cancer Center, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Niigata Cancer Center, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Nippon Medical School, NTT Kanto Medical Center, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Oita Prefectural Hospital, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita University Hospital, Oita Kouseiren Tsurumi Hospital, Okayama Rosai Hospital, Okayama University Hospital, Okazaki City Hospital, Okinawa Prefectural Nanbu Medical Center and Children’s Medical Center, Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka Medical Center For Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka Medical College Hospital, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Osaka University Hospital, Our Lady of Snow Medical Juridical Corporation St Mary’s Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science: The University of Tokyo, Rinku General Medical Center Izumisano Municipal Hospital, Ryukyu University Hospital, Saga Prefectural Hospital Koseikan, Saga University, Saiseikai Maebashi Hospital, Saitama Children’s Medical Center, Saitama Medical Center: Saitama Medical University, Saitama Medical Center: Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical University Hospital, Saitama Medical University Hospital, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Sakai Hospital Kinki University School of Medicine, Saku Central Hospital, Sapporo City General Hospital, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Sapporo Medical University Hospital, Sasebo City General Hospital, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Shiga Medical Center for Children, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Shimonoseki Kosei General Hospital, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka Children’s Hospital, Shizuoka City Hospital, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka Red Cross Hospital, Shizuoka Saiseikai General Hospital, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Showa University School of Medicine, Social Insurance Chukyo Hospital, Social Insurance Kyoto Hospital, St Marianna University School of Medicine Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, St Luke’s International Hospital, St Mariannna University School of Medicine, Sumitomo Hospital, Suzuka General Hospital, Suzuka Kaisei Hospital, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Takanohara Central Hospital, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine Mizonokuchi Hospital, Teine Keijinkai Hospital, Tenri Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science: The University of Tokyo, The Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute Kitano Hospital, Tochigi Cancer Center, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tohoku University Hospital, Tokai University School of Medicine, Tokushima Red Cross Hospital, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokuyama Central Hospital, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Bokutoh Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center-Komagome Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Fuchu Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children’s Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Hospital, Toranomon Hospital, Tottori Prefectural Central Hospital, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Prefectural Central Hospital, Toyohashi Municipal Hospital, Toyota Memorial Hospital, Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Tsukuba Memorial Hospital, Tsukuba University Hospital, University of Fukui Hospital, University of Miyazaki Hospital, University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan, University of the Ryukyus Hospital, University of Tokyo Hospital, University of Toyama, University of Tsukuba, University of Yamanashi Faculty of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital, Yokohama City University Hospital.

Korea (National Registry)

Coordinator: Chang- Ki Min, supported by Korea Marrow Donor Program, Catholic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Bank, and Korea Stem Cell Transplantation Nurse Association

Centers: The Catholic University St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University Kangnam St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University Daejeon St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University Our Lady Mercy Hospital, The Catholic University St Vincent’s Hospital, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Gyeongsan National University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University Anam Hospital, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, National Cancer Center, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Dong-A University Hospital, Pusan National University Hospital, Seoul National University Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University Hospital, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Ajou University Hospital, Yonsei University Hospital, Yeungnam University Hospital, Ulsan University Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University Hospital, Wonkwang University Hospital, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ewha Women’s Univesity Mokdong Hospital, Inje University Paik Hospital, Inha University Hospital, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chungnam National University Hospital, Pochon Univesity Bundang CHA Hospital, Hallym University Hospital, Hanyang University Hospital.

Malaysia (National Registry)

Coordinator: Chan Lee Lee

Centers: Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Gleneagles Medical Centre, Penang, Lam Wah Ee Hospital, Subang Jaya Medical Centre, Hospital University Kebangsaan Malaysia, University of Malaya Medical Centre.

Singapore

Coordinator: William Hwang

Centers: National University Hospital, Singapore General Hospital, KK Hospital Women's and Children's Hospital.

Taiwan (National Registry)

Coordinator: Tzeon-Jye Chiou

Centers: Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Taiwan University Hospital, Kaoshiung Medical University Hospital, China Medical University Hospital, Tzu-Chi Hospital, Chang-Hwa Christian Hospital, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Koo Foundation Hospital.

Vietnam

Coordinator: Tran Van Binh

Centers: Blood Transfusion and Hematology Center, Hue Regional Hematology and Blood Transfusion Center.

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Yoshimi, A., Suzuki, R., Atsuta, Y. et al. Hematopoietic SCT activity in Asia: a report from the Asia-Pacific Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group. Bone Marrow Transplant 45, 1682–1691 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2010.34

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Keywords

  • hematopoietic SCT
  • registry
  • Asia

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