Table 4 Selected site–specific SIRs and 95% CIs of a cancer diagnosis among patients with a hospital diagnosis of epistaxis or haemoptysis, Denmark 1995–2013

From: Risk of cancer in patients with epistaxis and haemoptysis

  Epistaxis Haemoptysis
Cancer site Obs Exp SIR (95% CI) Obs Exp SIR (95% CI)
All malignant neoplasms 9173 7737 1.19 (1.16, 1.21) 2582 1540 1.68 (1.61, 1.74)
Hodgkin’s lymphoma 9 16 0.57 (0.26, 1.08) 6 3 1.82 (0.67, 3.97)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 240 188 1.28 (1.12, 1.45) 52 38 1.37 (1.03, 1.80)
Multiple myeloma 97 71 1.36 (1.10, 1.66) 26 14 1.89 (1.23, 2.77)
Leukaemia 224 160 1.40 (1.22, 1.59) 41 29 1.40 (1.01, 1.90)
Liver 146 68 2.16 (1.82, 2.54) 39 13 2.92 (2.07, 3.99)
Malignant melanoma 204 202 1.01 (0.88, 1.16) 31 47 0.66 (0.45, 0.93)
Non-melanoma skin cancer 2165 2049 1.06 (1.01, 1.10) 442 405 1.09 (0.99, 1.20)
Cervix 61 33 1.83 (1.40, 2.35) NA   
Anus and anal canal excluding malignant melanomas 12 15 0.82 (0.42, 1.43) NA   
External female genitals excluding basal cell carcinomas 17 14 1.21 (0.70, 1.93) NA   
Lip 12 12 1.03 (0.53, 1.80) 5 2 2.62 (0.85, 6.10)
Tongue 50 22 2.27 (1.69, 3.00) 17 5 3.30 (1.92, 5.29)
Mouth 86 37 2.32 (1.86, 2.87) 12 8 1.47 (0.76, 2.58)
Tonsil and pharynx 142 53 2.70 (2.28, 3.18) 35 14 2.56 (1.78, 3.56)
Other and poorly specified location in lip, oral cavity, or pharynx NA    26 11 2.30 (1.50, 3.36)
Larynx 77 52 1.47 (1.16, 1.84) NA   
Oesophagus 123 94 1.31 (1.09, 1.56) 28 19 1.51 (1.00, 2.18)
Stomach 121 118 1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 26 22 1.18 (0.77. 1.73)
Colon including rectosigmoid junction 641 592 1.08 (1.00, 1.17) 118 105 1.12 (0.93. 1.34)
Rectum 289 301 0.96 (0.85, 1.08) 52 58 0.90 (0.68. 1.19)
Pancreas 204 184 1.11 (0.96, 1.27) 49 35 1.42 (1.05. 1.87)
Lung, bronchus, and trachea 1183 815 1.45 (1.37, 1.54) 958 163 5.87 (5.51. 6.26)
Kidney 188 117 1.60 (1.38, 1.85) 45 25 1.81 (1.32. 2.42)
Renal pelvis 15 15 1.02 (0.57, 1.68) NA   
Ureter 6 5 1.27 (0.46, 2.76) NA   
Urinary bladder 214 220 0.97 (0.84, 1.11) 33 38 0.86 (0.59, 1.21)
Salivary gland 12 9 1.28 (0.66, 2.23) NA   
Small intestine 20 16 1.23 (0.75, 1.90) 6 4 1.71 (0.63, 3.74)
Gallbladder and bile ducts 50 41 1.22 (0.91, 1.61) 14 7 1.91 (1.04, 3.20)
Nasal cavity, middle ear, and accessory sinuses 55 13 4.28 (3.23, 5.57) NA   
Pleura including mesothelioma pleura 16 24 0.67 (0.38, 1.09) 8 5 1.70 (0.73, 3.34)
Bone and articular cartilage 9 6 1.58 (0.72, 3.00) NA   
Retroperitoneum and peritoneum, and malignant neoplasm of other connective and soft tissue 35 34 1.03 (0.71, 1.43) 9 7 1.25 (0.57, 2.37)
Breast 645 559 1.15 (1.07, 1.25) 136 137 0.99 (0.83, 1.18)
Uterus 111 108 1.03 (0.85, 1.24) 16 25 0.65 (0.37, 1.06)
Ovary and fallopian tube 68 77 0.88 (0.68, 1.12) 18 17 1.04 (0.61, 1.64)
Penis excluding basal cell carcinomas 13 13 1.02 (0.54, 1.75) 3 2 1.25 (0.26, 3.66)
Prostate 1137 1002 1.13 (1.07, 1.20) 200 187 1.07 (0.92, 1.23)
Testis 29 31 0.95 (0.63, 1.36) 5 8 0.66 (0.21, 1.54)
Eye and adnexa 12 12 0.97 (0.50, 1.69) NA   
Brain including hypophysis, corpus pineale, and ductus craniopharyngealis 79 74 1.07 (0.85, 1.34) 21 16 1.31 (0.81, 2.01)
Endocrine glands and related structure 27 23 1.15 (0.76, 1.67) 14 6 2.37 (1.30, 3.98)
Metastasis and unspecified cancer in lymph nodes 204 159 1.28 (1.11, 1.47) 42 26 1.59 (1.15, 2.15)
Malignant neoplasm of other, ill-defined, or unspecified sites 98 61 1.60 (1.30, 1.95) 18 9 1.94 (1.15, 3.06)
  1. Abbreviations: CI=confidence interval; Exp=expected number; NA=not available; Obs=observed number; SIR=standardised incidence ratios.
  2. Only cancer with at least five observed cases are presented. NA indicates less than five cancer cases.