Table 2 Pooled and cohort-specific hazard ratios for the association between the empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and incident epithelial ovarian cancer in the NHS and NHS-IIa,b,c

From: The inflammatory potential of diet and ovarian cancer risk: results from two prospective cohort studies

  EDIP quintiles (Q)  
Cohort Q1
−18.8 to <−0.73
Q2
−0.73 to <−0.21
Q3
−0.21 to <0.21
Q4
0.21 to <0.73
Q5
0.73 to 14.6
P -trend d
Median EDIP score −1.17 −0.44 0.01 0.45 1.17  
Pooled       
 No. of cases/person-years 218/682 484 197/686 193 219/690 780 188/694 786 167/700 271  
 Age, calendar time and cohort-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 0.93 (0.77, 1.13) 1.10 (0.91, 1.33) 1.00 (0.82, 1.22) 1.04 (0.84, 1.27) 0.64
 Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.76, 1.12) 1.07 (0.89, 1.30) 0.98 (0.80, 1.19) 0.99 (0.80, 1.22) 0.97
Nurses’ Health Study (NHS)       
 No. of cases/person-years 173/390 941 153/351 940 167/319 212 135/285 323 103/234 015  
 Age, calendar time and cohort-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 0.94 (0.75, 1.17) 1.13 (0.91, 1.39) 1.02 (0.82, 1.28) 1.02 (0.80, 1.30) 0.47
 Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 0.93 (0.75, 1.16) 1.12 (0.90, 1.38) 1.02 (0.81, 1.29) 1.03 (0.80, 1.32) 0.46
Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS-II)       
 No. of cases/person-years 45/271 982 44/310 869 52/344 572 53/378 971 64/431 470  
 Age, calendar time and cohort-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 0.91 (0.60, 1.38) 1.01 (0.67, 1.50) 0.94 (0.63, 1.40) 1.04 (0.71, 1.53) 0.80
 Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.00 0.90 (0.59, 1.36) 0.98 (0.66, 1.47) 0.89 (0.59, 1.34) 0.93 (0.63, 1.39) 0.37
  1. Abbreviations: CI=confidence interval; EDIP=empirical dietary inflammatory pattern score; HR=hazard ratio; NHS=Nurses’ Health Study; NHS-II=Nurses’ Health Study-II.
  2. aEDIP scores were adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. In the EDIP quintiles, lower EDIP scores indicate anti-inflammatory diets and higher scores, pro-inflammatory diets.
  3. bEDIP quintiles were based on the distribution in the pooled study population.
  4. cCox proportional hazards models were used for all analyses. Analyses were stratified by age, and calendar time, and were adjusted for parity, duration of breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer or ovarian cancer, duration of oral contraceptive use, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone duration and type, tubal ligation, hysterectomy, body mass index, and number of supplements used; models were further stratified by cohort in the pooled analysis. Fifteen supplements were included in the variable 'number of supplements used': multivitamins, vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B-complex, folic acid, niacin (when used separately from B-complex), calcium, iron, selenium, zinc, magnesium and fish oil.
  5. dContinuous residual-adjusted EDIP scores were used to test for linear trend across EDIP quartiles, adjusted for all covariates previously listed.