Table 1 Distribution of participant characteristics (weighted by person-years) across the entire follow-up time, in quintiles of the empirical dietary inflammatory pattern scores in the NHS (1984–2012) and the NHS-II (1991–2013)a,b,c

From: The inflammatory potential of diet and ovarian cancer risk: results from two prospective cohort studies

  Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS-II)
Characteristic Q1 Q3 Q5 Q1 Q3 Q5
Average person-years 390 941 319 212 234 015 271 982 344 572 431 470
Age, year 62.1±9.5d 63.8±10.0 61.6±9.8 48.6±7.0 47.1±7.2 45.7±7.2
History of tubal ligation, % 21.0 20.0 21.9 22.8 23.9 25.7
History of hysterectomy, % 19.1 22.4 23.3 7.6 8.6 9.9
Family history of breast or ovarian cancer, % 27.4 30.5 25.9 13.8 12.4 11.3
Current smoker, % 17.2 11.4 13.5 9.8 8.3 10.9
Parous, % 94.4 94.8 94.4 79.6 81.7 79.7
No. of children in parous womene 3 3 3 2 2 2
Duration of breastfeeding in parous women, month 6.7±10.4 6.2±10.2 5.6±9.8 16.5±14.4 15.2±14.2 12.5±13.0
Oral contraceptive use, ever, % 52.7 49.4 52.7 86.6 85.8 84.2
Duration of oral contraceptive use in ever users, year 4.1±3.9 4.0±3.8 4.0±3.9 5.4±4.9 5.5±4.9 5.5±4.8
Postmenopausal, % 81.6 84.2 78.6 31.2 23.9 18.4
Estrogen-only HT usef, % 17.2 19.0 17.2 9.8 10.1 10.0
Duration of estrogen-only HT useg, year 7.2±6.3 8.0±7.0 7.5±6.6 3.3±3.5 3.9±3.8 4.2±4.1
Estrogen-progestin HT usef, % 32.0 28.7 23.9 34.5 34.2 30.8
Duration of estrogen-progestin HT useg, year 5.8±4.1 5.7±4.1 5.2±3.7 3.3±2.9 3.3±2.9 3.1±2.8
Alcohol intake, g d−1 9.7±12.6 4.3±7.2 3.4±6.7 9.6±12.5 4.2±6.0 2.9±4.6
Total energy intake, Kcal d−1 1780±533 1668±527 1814±582 1947±574 1756±550 1857±601
Used 1 of 15 supplementsh, % 76.2 74.9 67.9 72.7 69.9 63.0
Physical activity, MET-hour per week 20.1±23.7 17.4±20.9 15.5±19.2 25.9±28.7 21.2±24.2 18.9±23.2
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) 0.81±0.15 0.82±0.11 0.84±0.11 0.80±0.07 0.81±0.07 0.82±0.08
WHR 0.80, % 45.7 53.6 62.0 48.3 52.3 61.7
Body mass index, kg m−2 24.9±4.4 26.3±5.1 28.4±6.2 25.3±5.2 26.2±5.8 28.3±7.2
Overweight/obese, 25 kg m−2, % 41.6 54.4 67.4 41.6 47.8 60.6
  1. aEDIP=empirical dietary inflammatory pattern score; HT=postmenopausal hormone therapy; NHS=Nurses’ Health Study; NHS-II=Nurses’ Health Study-II; Q=quintile.
  2. bWeighted by follow-up time (person-years) accrued by each participant.
  3. cEDIP scores were adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. In the EDIP quintiles, lower EDIP scores indicate anti-inflammatory diets and higher scores, pro-inflammatory diets.
  4. dMean±s.d. (all such values).
  5. eAverage rounded to the nearest whole number.
  6. fAmong postmenopausal women.
  7. gAmong postmenopausal women using HT.
  8. hThe 15 supplements included were: multivitamins, vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B-complex, folic acid, niacin (when used separately from B-complex), calcium, iron, selenium, zinc, magnesium and fish oil.