Table 1 Study and participants characteristics by cohort in the CHANCES consortium of middle-aged and older adults

From: Comparison of general obesity and measures of body fat distribution in older adults in relation to cancer risk: meta-analysis of individual participant data of seven prospective cohorts in Europe

  EPIC Elderly    
Characteristics Denmark Greece Netherlands Spain Germany (ESTHER) Northern Ireland (PRIME Belfast) Norway (Tromsø)
Recruitment year, range 1993–1997 1994–1999 1993–1997 1992–1996 2000–2003 1991–1994 1994–1995
Age at entry, years (s.d.) 62.5 1.5 66.9 4.4 64.3 2.7 62.5 1.7 61.9 6.6 54.2 2.8 59.4 6.9
Sex               
 Men, n (%) 5072 46.4 2882 40.1 210 4.9 1949 42.5 3849 44.9 1944 100 2762 46.7
 Women, n (%) 5853 53.6 4299 59.9 4085 95.1 2635 57.5 4728 55.1 0 0 3151 53.3
Education               
 Low, n (%) 4193 38.4 6539 91.1 1303 30.3 3927 85.7 6197 72.3 15 0.8 3033 51.3
 Medium, n (%) 4889 44.8 398 5.5 2451 57.1 320 7.0 1757 20.5 1677 86.3 1726 29.2
 High, n (%) 1827 16.7 220 3.1 521 12.1 287 6.3 415 4.8 252 13.0 1118 18.9
 Unknown, n (%) 16 0.2 24 0.3 20 0.5 50 1.1 208 2.4 0 0.0 36 0.6
BMI at baseline, kg m−2 (s.d.) 26.2 3.9 29.3 4.3 25.8 3.9 29.5 4.0 27.6 4.2 26.1 3.2 26.1 3.7
 Underweight, n (%) 62 0.6 19 0.3 46 1.1 4 0.1 33 0.4 8 0.4 44 0.7
 Normal weight, n (%) 4421 40.5 1114 15.5 1947 45.3 493 10.8 2323 27.1 723 37.2 2377 40.2
 Overweight, n (%) 4861 44.5 3125 43.5 1745 40.6 2167 47.3 4064 47.4 998 51.3 2661 45.0
 Obese, n (%) 1581 14.5 2923 40.7 557 13.0 1920 41.9 2157 25.2 215 11.1 831 14.1
WC at baseline, cm (s.d.) 89.1 12.4 95.9 11.4 84.2 10.3 97.1 10.7 90.9 9.1 90.1 10.9
HC at baseline, cm (s.d.) 101.2 7.8 106.3 9.1 103.8 8.3 107.9 8.5 96.8 6.4 103.5 7.3
WHR at baseline, ratio (s.d.) 0.88 0.10 0.90 0.09 0.81 0.07 0.90 0.08 0.94 0.05 0.87 0.08
Height at baseline, cm (s.d.) 168.8 8.8 158.2 8.7 163.8 6.5 159.5 8.6 167.3 8.4 174.2 6.8 168.2 9.4
Vigorous physical activity               
 No, n (%) 1752 16.0 5566 77.5 1669 38.9 4311 94 4853 56.6 1689 86.9 3528 59.7
 Yes, n (%) 5135 47.0 1506 21.0 2480 57.7 242 5.3 3704 43.2 255 13.1 2324 39.3
 Unknown, n (%) 4038 37.0 109 1.5 146 3.4 31 0.7 20 0.2 0 0.0 61 1.0
Alcohol intake, g per day (s.d.) 19.0 19.8 7.5 15.4 7.8 11.9 13.0 22.2 6.8 9.4 20.3 30.4 3.6 5.1
Smoking status               
 Never daily smoker, n (%) 3625 33.2 4891 68.1 2052 47.8 3109 67.8 4191 48.9 792 40.7 1950 33.0
 Former daily smoker, n (%) 4078 37.3 1285 17.9 1532 35.7 732 16.0 2772 32.3 637 32.8 2127 36.0
 Current daily smoker, n (%) 3201 29.3 805 11.2 694 16.2 740 16.1 1389 16.2 491 25.3 1831 30.9
 Unknown, n (%) 21 0.2 200 2.8 17 0.4 3 0.1 255 2.6 24 1.2 5 0.1
Median follow-up time, years 11.9   11.5   13.2   13.4   10.5   18.0   15.9  
N cancers cases               
N all obesity-relateda 465   127   250   164   352   56   242  
N breast cancer (age>50 years, women only) 193   22   109   42   125    64  
N colorectal cancer 141   39   80   66   111   41   113  
N other obesity-relatedb 131   66   61   56   116   15   65  
  1. Abbreviations: BMI=body mass index; HC=hip circumference; WC=waist circumference; WHR=waist-to-hip ratio.
  2. Note: all values are means, except when stated otherwise.
  3. aFirst primary cancers of the breast (postmenopausal), colorectum, lower oesophagus, cardia stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, endometrium, ovary, and kidney.
  4. bSame as all obesity-related cancers but excluding first primary cancers of the breast and of the colorectum.