Table 3 Associations between high use of PDEIs (100 tablets) and risk of melanoma, by clinical stage

From: Use of sildenafil or other phosphodiesterase inhibitors and risk of melanoma

Subgroup Cases exposed/unexposed Controls exposed/unexposed Adjusted OR a Adjusted OR b
Danish Nationwide Health Registries (DNHR)
In situ NA NA NA NA
Localised 83/4865 641/48 938 1.30 (1.02–1.64) 1.21 (0.95–1.54)
Non-localised 6/641 78/6414 0.75 (0.32–1.74) 0.75 (0.32–1.75)
Unknown 24/1091 160/10 943 1.48 (0.96–2.30) 1.44 (0.92–2.24)
Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) database
In situ 125/2059 1066/20 516 1.21 (0.99–1.47) 1.15 (0.95–1.41)
Localised 120/2079 1166/20 697 1.03 (0.85–1.25) 0.99 (0.81–1.21)
Non-localised 9/267 150/2610 0.58 (0.29–1.16) 0.61 (0.30–1.23)
Unknown 4/58 35/535 1.04 (0.35–3.10) 0.98 (0.31–3.09)
  1. Abbreviations: NA=not applicable; OR=odds ratio; PDEIs=phosphodiesterase 5A inhibitors.
  2. aAdjusted for age and calendar time (by design; risk-set matching).
  3. bFully adjusted model, that is, additionally adjusted for (a) use of oral steroids, weak/moderate topical steroids, strong/very strong topical steroids, thiazides, beta-blockers, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, low-dose aspirin (only in the DNHR), non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, and statins; (b) diagnoses of non-melanoma skin cancer, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcohol-related disease, and moderate to severe renal disease; and (c) highest education achieved (in the DNHR) and socioeconomic level based on the US Census block of residence (in the KPNC database).