Table 2 Association between use of PDEIs and risk of invasive melanoma, specified by exposure pattern and disregarding prescriptions within the year prior to the index date

From: Use of sildenafil or other phosphodiesterase inhibitors and risk of melanoma

Exposure group Cases Controls Adjusted OR a Adjusted OR b
Danish Nationwide Health Registries (DNHR)
Non-use 6597 66 295 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Ever use 448 4155 1.09 (0.98–1.21) 1.06 (0.96–1.18)
High use (100 tablets) 113 879 1.28 (1.05–1.56) 1.22 (0.99–1.49)
Number of tablets     
 <20 155 1475 1.07 (0.91–1.27) 1.06 (0.89–1.26)
 20–49 120 1164 1.03 (0.85–1.25) 1.02 (0.84–1.24)
 50–99 60 637 0.99 (0.76–1.30) 0.95 (0.72–1.24)
 100–199 57 500 1.14 (0.86–1.50) 1.07 (0.81–1.42)
 200–499 46 309 1.51 (1.10–2.07) 1.44 (1.04–1.98)
 500+ 10 70 1.47 (0.75–2.87) 1.47 (0.75–2.89)
Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) database
Non-use 2404 23 842 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Ever use 568 5465 1.04 (0.94–1.14) 1.01 (0.91–1.12)
High use (100 tablets) 133 1351 0.98 (0.81–1.18) 0.95 (0.78–1.14)
Number of tablets     
 <20 133 1494 0.89 (0.74–1.06) 0.88 (0.73–1.07)
 20–49 188 1619 1.16 (0.99–1.36) 1.13 (0.96–1.33)
 50–99 114 1001 1.13 (0.93–1.38) 1.09 (0.89–1.33)
 100–199 63 761 0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.80 (0.61–1.04)
 200–499 62 509 1.22 (0.93–1.60) 1.18 (0.90–1.56)
 500+ 8 81 0.99 (0.48–2.04) 0.94 (0.45–1.97)
  1. Abbreviations: OR=odds ratio; PDEIs=phosphodiesterase 5A inhibitors.
  2. aAdjusted for age and calendar time (by design; risk-set matching).
  3. bFully adjusted model, that is, additionally adjusted for (a) use of oral steroids, weak/moderate topical steroids, strong/very strong topical steroids, thiazides, beta-blockers, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, low-dose aspirin (only in the DNHR), non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, and statins; (b) diagnoses of non-melanoma skin cancer, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcohol-related disease, and moderate to severe renal disease; and (c) highest education achieved (in the DNHR) and socioeconomic level based on the US Census block of residence (in the KPNC database).