Table 2 HRs and 95% CIs for pancreatic cancer according to coffee intake in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, stratified by smoking status (n=442 280)

From: A prospective study of coffee intake and pancreatic cancer: results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

  Coffee intake (cups per day)
  None (ref.)a (n =46 369) 1 ( n =150 179) 2–3 ( n =188 205) 4 ( n =72 613) P -value for trend
Current smokers ( n =65 699)
No. of cases 15 70 147 106  
HR (95% CI) 1.00 1.15 (0.66–2.01) 1.10 (0.65–1.88) 1.03 (0.60–1.77) 0.57
Former smokers ( n =228 875)
No. of cases 43 244 329 127  
HR (95% CI) 1.00 1.16 (0.84–1.60) 1.08 (0.78–1.48) 1.18 (0.83–1.67) 0.83
Never smokersb (n =147 706)
No. of cases 67 160 141 31  
HR (95% CI) 1.00 0.95 (0.71–1.26) 0.98 (0.73–1.31) 0.97 (0.63–1.48) 0.93
  1. Abbreviations: CI=confidence intervals; HR=hazard ratios; NIH-AARP=National Institutes of Health–AARP.
  2. Participants who reported that they never smoked cigarettes but smoked pipes/cigars are excluded from these analyses (n=15 086). All models were adjusted for age at study baseline (continuous), sex, number of cigarettes smoked per day among current and former smokers (1–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–60, 60), time of smoking cessation among former smokers (<1, 1–<5, 5–<10, or 10 years before study baseline), and whether a participant ever smoked pipe/cigars (yes/no). P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.
  3. aParticipants reported never drinking coffee during the past year.
  4. bNever smokers of any tobacco product (cigarettes, pipes, or cigars).