Table 1 Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for pancreatic cancer according to coffee intake in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (N=457 366)

From: A prospective study of coffee intake and pancreatic cancer: results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

  Coffee intake (cups per day)  
Model adjustments None (ref.)a (n =46 369) <1 ( n =74 796) 1 ( n =75 383) 2–3 (188 205) 4–5 (55 503) 6 ( n =17 110) P -value for trend
All participants
No. of cases 129 234 258 645 195 80  
Age, sex 1.00 1.07 (0.87–1.33) 1.10 (0.89–1.36) 1.15 (0.95–1.38) 1.24 (0.99–1.55) 1.77 (1.34–2.34) <0.01*
Age, sex, smoking 1.00 1.05 (0.85–1.30) 1.06 (0.86–1.31) 1.03 (0.85–1.25) 1.00 (0.79–1.25) 1.24 (0.93–1.65) 0.46
Multivariate 1.00 1.05 (0.84–1.30) 1.06 (0.86–1.31) 1.03 (0.85–1.26) 1.01 (0.80–1.27) 1.26 (0.94–1.69) 0.3390
Men ( n =275 328)
No. of cases 71 153 146 427 142 54  
Age 1.00 1.18 (0.89–1.56) 1.07 (0.81–1.43) 1.19 (0.93–1.53) 1.34 (1.01–1.78) 1.74 (1.22–2.48) <0.01**
Age, smoking 1.00 1.16 (0.87–1.53) 1.03 (0.77–1.37) 1.08 (0.84–1.39) 1.08 (0.81–1.45) 1.21 (0.84–1.75) 0.53
Multivariate 1.00 1.14 (0.86–1.52) 1.02 (0.76–1.35) 1.05 (0.81–1.36) 1.06 (0.79–1.43) 1.21 (0.84–1.75) 0.55
Women ( n =182 038)
No. of cases 58 81 112 218 53 26  
Age 1.00 0.92 (0.66–1.29) 1.15 (0.84–1.58) 1.08 (0.81–1.45) 1.08 (0.75–1.57) 1.90 (1.19–3.01) 0.02
Age, smoking 1.00 0.90 (0.65–1.27) 1.12 (0.81–1.54) 0.97 (0.72–1.30) 0.85 (0.58–1.24) 1.34 (0.83–2.16) 0.73
Multivariate 1.00 0.91 (0.65–1.28) 1.12 (0.82–1.55) 1.01 (0.75–1.35) 0.89 (0.60–1.30) 1.38 (0.85–2.22) 0.53
  1. Abbreviations: BMI=body mass index; NIH-AARP=National Institutes of Health–AARP.
  2. All models were adjusted for age at study baseline (continuous), and sex (with the exception of gender-stratified models). Detailed adjustment for smoking included current cigarette smoking status (current, former, never), number of cigarettes smoked per day among current and former smokers (1–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–60, 60), time of smoking cessation among former smokers (<1, 1–<5, 5–<10, or 10 years before study baseline), and whether a participant ever smoked pipe/cigars (yes/no). Multivariate models were additionally adjusted for diabetes (yes/no), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, other), BMI (as <18.5, 18.5–<25, 25–<30, 30), highest level of education (11 years, high school graduate, some college, college graduate), alcohol consumption (0, 1, 2–3, or >3 drinks per day), health status (good/excellent, good, poor/fair), use of nutritional supplements (yes/no), current marital status (married/not married), physical activity (never/rarely, 1–3x per month, 1–2x per week, 3–4x per week, or 5x per week), history of cardiovascular disease (yes/no), family history of cancer (yes/no), total energy intake (kcal, continuous), and the nutrient density-adjusted intakes (continuous) of the following dietary items: fruits, vegetables, folate, protein, saturated fat, and total fat. Bold values are statistically significant (P-values <0.05).
  3. *P<0.0001.
  4. **P<0.001.
  5. aParticipants reported never drinking coffee during the past year.