Table 1 Baseline characteristics in cases and all matched controls by database (QResearch or CPRD)

From: Exposure to bisphosphonates and risk of common non-gastrointestinal cancers: series of nested case–control studies using two primary-care databases

  QResearch CPRD
  Cases Controls Cases Controls
Total 91 556 427 674 88 845 415 383
Breast 24 489 113 945 25 444 118 835
Prostate 26 554 124 230 23 176 108 102
Lung 17 961 83 992 19 059 89 471
Bladder 7464 34 786 7084 32 984
Skin 4998 23 399 4621 21 654
Ovary 3427 16 089 3088 14 532
Pancreas 3593 16 818 3485 16 200
Uterus 2248 10 570 2149 10 125
Cervix 822 3845 739 3480
Sex
Male 47 193 (51.5) 220 492 (51.6) 43 596 (49.1) 203 487 (49.0)
Female 44 363 (48.5) 207 182 (48.4) 45 249 (50.9) 211 896 (51.0)
Age band (years)
30–54 7345 (8.0) 34 000 (7.9) 6998 (7.9) 32 749 (7.9)
55–64 22 786 (24.9) 106 266 (24.8) 22 071 (24.8) 104 095 (25.1)
65–74 30 410 (33.2) 143 528 (33.6) 28 407 (32.0) 134 902 (32.5)
75–84 26 177 (28.6) 122 798 (28.7) 23 864 (26.9) 112 533 (27.1)
85+ 4838 (5.3) 21 082 (4.9) 7505 (8.4) 31 104 (7.5)
Ethnicity     
White 21 477 (23.5) 90 874 (21.2) 7034 (7.9) 30 294 (7.3)
Not recordeda 69 131 (75.5) 331 241 (77.5) 78 841 (88.7) 371 491 (89.4)
Non-white 948 (1.0) 5559 (1.3) 2970 (3.3) 13 598 (3.3)
 Asianb 364 (0.4) 2726 (0.6) 194 (0.2) 1516 (0.4)
 Blackb 397 (0.4) 1834 (0.4) 166 (0.2) 649 (0.2)
 Otherb 187 (0.2) 999 (0.2) 2610 (2.9) 11 433 (2.8)
Deprivation, Townsend quintile
1, most affluentc 23 442 (26.3) 110 919 (26.7) 9753 (30.5) 45 736 (30.6)
2c 19 959 (22.4) 94 167 (22.7) 7695 (24.0) 36 203 (24.2)
3c 18 032 (20.2) 84 427 (20.3) 6253 (19.5) 29 740 (19.9)
4c 15 768 (17.7) 72 202 (17.4) 5007 (15.6) 23 075 (15.4)
5, most deprivedc 12 075 (13.5) 53 799 (12.9) 3290 (10.3) 14 914 (10.0)
Not recorded 2280 (2.5) 12 160 (2.8) 56 847 (64.0) 265 715 (64.0)
BMI (kg m−2)
15–24c 27 225 (38.0) 120 028 (37.3) 29 310 (39.1) 131 726 (38.3)
25–29c 28 956 (40.4) 130 874 (40.7) 29 808 (39.7) 138 713 (40.3)
30–49c 15 409 (21.5) 70 904 (22.0) 15 913 (21.2) 73 554 (21.4)
Not recorded 19 966 (21.8) 105 868 (24.8) 13 814 (15.5) 71 390 (17.2)
Smoking status
Non-smokerc 34 949 (41.4) 182 349 (48.0) 40 128 (47.6) 21 2180 (55.4)
Ex-smokerc 31 475 (37.3) 136 575 (36.0) 26 958 (32.0) 112 142 (29.3)
Current light smokerc 5633 (6.7) 20 787 (5.5) 3966 (4.7) 13 871 (3.6)
Current moderate smokerc 7825 (9.3) 26 747 (7.0) 8838 (10.5) 30 846 (8.1)
Current heavy smokerc 4467 (5.3) 13 187 (3.5) 4382 (5.2) 13 646 (3.6)
Not recorded 7207 (7.9) 48 029 (11.2) 4573 (5.1) 32 698 (7.9)
Use of alcohol
No usec 22 061 (29.9) 101 997 (30.5) 19 714 (25.8) 92 647 (26.6)
Ex usec    2030 (2.7) 7672 (2.2)
Lightc 44 809 (60.7) 203 342 (60.8) 44 448 (58.1) 204 556 (58.8)
Moderate and morec 7009 (9.5) 29 036 (8.7) 10 250 (13.4) 42 911 (12.3)
Not recorded 17 677 (19.3) 93 299 (21.8) 12 403 (14.0) 67 597 (16.3)
Comorbidities
Upper GI 19 250 (21.0) 83 377 (19.5) 24 302 (27.4) 107 660 (25.9)
Diabetes 8140 (8.9) 36 769 (8.6) 7990 (9.0) 37 011 (8.9)
Pancreatitis 492 (0.5) 1981 (0.5) 552 (0.6) 2102 (0.5)
Hypertension 31 466 (34.4) 142 577 (33.3) 31 169 (35.1) 142 474 (34.3)
Chronic kidney disease 3444 (3.8) 15 558 (3.6) 3710 (4.2) 16 425 (4.0)
Rheumatoid arthritis 1424 (1.6) 6591 (1.5) 1673 (1.9) 7310 (1.8)
Benign breast disease 2727 (3.0) 10 077 (2.4) 2761 (3.1) 9653 (2.3)
History of osteoporosis
Osteoporosis/osteopenia 3682 (4.0) 16 998 (4.0) 4023 (4.5) 18 474 (4.4)
Osteoporotic fractures 3322 (3.6) 16 013 (3.7) 2375 (2.7) 10 342 (2.5)
Family history of cancer 2841 (3.1) 11 756 (2.7) 2836 (3.2) 11 364 (2.7)
Medications (excluding past 6 months)
Acid-lowering drugs 32 523 (35.5) 14 0637 (32.9) 33 531 (37.7) 145 409 (35.0)
NSAIDs 52 422 (57.3) 233 143 (54.5) 55 106 (62.0) 248 518 (59.8)
Corticosteroids 14 156 (15.5) 57 106 (13.4) 13 908 (15.7) 54 233 (13.1)
Calcium 1023 (1.1) 4816 (1.1) 6286 (7.1) 28 984 (7.0)
Vitamin D 4891 (5.3) 22 582 (5.3) 4960 (5.6) 23 035 (5.5)
Hormone replacementd 12 071 (13.2) 51 861 (12.1) 12 633 (14.2) 55 666 (13.4)
Oral contraceptivesd 773 (0.8) 3551 (0.8) 1236 (1.4) 5490 (1.3)
Bisphosphonates
Any 3827 (4.2) 17 883 (4.2) 3769 (4.2) 17 490 (4.2)
Alendronate 2589 (2.8) 12 010 (2.8) 2538 (2.9) 11 969 (2.9)
Etidronate 1286 (1.4) 5949 (1.4) 1170 (1.3) 5471 (1.3)
Risedronate 851 (0.9) 3985 (0.9) 806 (0.9) 3715 (0.9)
Ibandronate 74 (0.1) 435 (0.1) 75 (0.1) 353 (0.1)
Other osteoporosis drugs
Any 319 (0.3) 1641 (0.4) 333 (0.4) 1685 (0.4)
Raloxifen 192 (0.2) 1032 (0.2) 217 (0.2) 1081 (0.3)
Strontium 95 (0.1) 456 (0.1) 97 (0.1) 509 (0.1)
Calcitonin 38 (0.0) 207 (0.0) 34 (0.0) 162 (0.0)
  1. Abbreviations: CPRD=Clinical Practice Research Datalink; GI=gastrointestinal; NSAID=non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  2. Values are numbers and %.
  3. aAssumed White for the analyses.
  4. bBroken down categories for non-White group.
  5. cProportion only within recorded data.
  6. dOnly for women cancers.